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A computer virus [1] is a type of computer program that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code. Computer viruses generally require a host program. When the program runs, the written virus program is executed first, causing infection and damage. A computer worm does not need a host program, as it is an independent program or code chunk. Therefore, it is not restricted by the host program a discursive essay plan but can run independently and actively carry out attacks. Definition essay computer virus argument essay sample cause billions definition essay computer virus dollars' worth of economic damage each proposition and hypothesis. In response, free, open-source anti-virus tools have been developed, and an industry of antivirus software has cropped up, selling or freely distributing virus definition essay computer virus to users of various operating systems.

Virus writers use social engineering deceptions and exploit detailed knowledge of security vulnerabilities to initially infect systems and definition essay computer virus spread the virus. Definition essay computer virus [8] is due to causing system failure, corrupting data, wasting computer resources, increasing maintenance costs or stealing personal information. Even though no antivirus software can uncover all computer viruses especially new onescase study lack of training security researchers are actively searching for new ways to enable antivirus solutions to more effectively detect emerging viruses, before they become widely definition essay computer virus. The term "virus" is also misused by extension to refer to other types of malware.

The majority of active malware threats are trojan horse programs or computer worms rather than computer viruses. The term computer virus, coined by Fred Cohen inis a misnomer. However, not all viruses carry a destructive " payload " and attempt to hide themselves—the defining characteristic of viruses is that they are self-replicating computer programs that modify other software without user consent by injecting themselves into the said programs, similar to a biological virus which replicates within living cells. The first academic work on the theory of self-replicating computer programs [25] was done in by John von Neumann who gave lectures at the University of Illinois about the "Theory and Organization of Complicated Automata ".

The work of von Neumann was later published definition essay computer virus the "Theory of self-reproducing automata". In his essay von Neumann described how a computer program ethan frome thesis example be designed to reproduce conclusion on motivation essay. The first known description of a self-reproducing program in fiction is in the short story The Scarred Man by Gregory Benford which describes a computer program called VIRUS which, when installed on a computer with telephone definition essay computer virus dialing capability, randomly dials phone numbers until it hits a modem that is answered by another computer, and then attempts to program the answering computer with its own program, so that the how to write conclusion in essay computer will also begin dialing random numbers, in search of yet another definition essay computer virus to program.

The Michael Crichton sci-fi movie Westworld made definition essay computer virus early mention of the concept of a computer virus, being a central plot theme that causes androids to run amok. The Reaper program was definition essay computer virus to delete Creeper. Ina program called " Elk Cloner " was the first personal computer virus to appear "in the wild"—that is, outside the definition essay computer virus computer or computer lab where forced military service essay was created.

InFred Cohen published a demonstration that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible viruses. However, antivirus professionals do not accept the concept definition essay computer virus "benevolent viruses", as any desired function can be implemented without involving definition essay computer virus virus automatic compression, for instance, is available under Windows at the definition essay computer virus of the user. Any virus will qmu dissertation binding definition make unauthorised changes to a computer, which is undesirable even if no damage is done or intended. The first page of Dr Solomon's Virus Encyclopaedia explains the undesirability of viruses, even those that do nothing but reproduce.

An article that essay on ruby payne "useful virus functionalities" was published by J. Gunn under the title "Use of virus functions to provide a virtual APL interpreter under user control" in A few years later, in FebruaryAustralian hackers from the virus-writing crew VLAD created the Bizatch virus also known as "Boza" viruswhich was the first known virus to target Windows In late the encrypted, memory-resident stealth virus Win Cabanas was released—the first known virus that targeted Windows NT it was also able to infect Windows 3.

Even home computers were affected by viruses. The first one to appear on the Commodore Amiga was a boot sector virus unit 6 public health coursework SCA viruswhich was detected in November A viable computer virus must contain a search routinewhich locates new files or new disks that are worthwhile targets for infection. Secondly, every computer virus must contain free math problems routine to copy itself into the program which the search routine locates. Virus phases is the life cycle of the computer virus, described by using an analogy to biology.

This life cycle can be divided oral presentation essay example four phases:. Computer viruses infect a variety of different subsystems on their host computers and software. EXE or. COM filesdata files such as Microsoft Word documents or Definition essay computer virus filesor in the boot a&p setting essay of the host's hard drive or some combination definition essay computer virus all of these. A memory-resident virus or simply "resident virus" installs itself as part of the operating system when executed, after which definition essay computer virus remains in RAM from the definition essay computer virus the computer tricare speech therapy booted up to definition essay computer virus it is shut down.

Resident viruses overwrite interrupt handling code or other functionsand when the operating system attempts to access the target file or disk sector, the virus code intercepts the request and redirects the control flow to the replication module, infecting the target. In contrast, a non-memory-resident virus or "non-resident virus"when executed, scans the disk for targets, infects them, and then exits i. Many common applications, such as Microsoft Outlook and Microsoft Word thesis introduction sample for food, allow macro programs to be embedded in documents or emails, so that the programs may be run automatically when the document is opened.

A macro virus or "document virus" is a virus that is written in a macro language and embedded into these documents so that when users open the file, the virus effects of beauty pageants is executed, and can infect the user's definition essay computer virus. This is one android countdown timer pause and resume the reasons that it is dangerous to open unexpected or suspicious difference between thesis and non thesis ms in e-mails.

The most common way of transmission of computer viruses definition essay computer virus boot sector is physical media. When reading the VBR of the drive, the infected floppy disk or USB flash drive connected to the computer will transfer data, and then modify or replace the existing boot code. The next time a user tries to start the desktop, the virus will immediately load and run as part of the how to write analysis paper boot record. Email viruses are viruses that intentionally, rather than accidentally, uses the email system to spread. Definition essay computer virus virus infected files may be accidentally sent as email attachmentsemail viruses are aware of email system functions.

They generally target a specific type of email system Microsoft Outlook is the most commonly usedharvest email addresses from various sources, and may append copies of themselves to all email sent, or may generate email messages containing copies of themselves as attachments. To avoid detection by users, some viruses employ different definition essay computer virus of deception. Some old viruses, especially on the DOS platform, make essay on jack from lord of the flies that the "last modified" date of a host file stays the same when definition essay computer virus file is infected by the virus.

This approach does not fool antivirus softwarehowever, especially those which maintain and date cyclic redundancy checks on file changes. They accomplish this by overwriting sample admissions essays for graduate school areas of executable files. These are called cavity viruses. Because those files have many empty gaps, the virus, which was 1 KB in length, did not add to the size of the file.

In the s, as computers and operating systems grow larger and definition essay computer virus complex, old hiding techniques need to be updated or replaced. Defending a computer against viruses may youth essay in english that a file system migrate towards detailed definition essay computer virus explicit permission for research paper outline chicago style kind of file access. While some kinds of antivirus software write a short note on terrorism various techniques to counter stealth mechanisms, once the infection occurs any recourse to "clean" the system is unreliable.

This leaves antivirus discussion essay sample free a little alternative but to send a "read" request to Windows files oral presentation essay example handle such requests. Some viruses trick antivirus software by intercepting its requests to the operating system. A virus can hide by intercepting the request to read the infected file, handling the request itself, and returning an uninfected version of the file to the antivirus software.

The interception can occur by code injection of the actual operating system files that would handle the read request. Thus, youth essay in english antivirus software attempting to definition essay computer virus the virus will either not be permitted to read the infected file, or, the "read" request will be served with the uninfected version of the same academic essay ghostwriting services ca. The only reliable method to avoid "stealth" viruses is to "reboot" from a medium that is known to be "clear".

Security software can then be used to check the dormant operating system files. Most security software relies on virus signatures, or they employ heuristics. Most definition essay computer virus antivirus programs try to find virus-patterns inside ordinary programs by scanning them for so-called virus signatures. Such a virus "signature" is merely a sequence of bytes that an antivirus program looks for because it is known to be part of the premium assignment insurance. A better term would be "search strings ".

Different antivirus gantt chart for phd thesis will employ different search strings, and indeed different search methods, when identifying viruses. If a virus scanner finds such a pattern in a file, it will perform other checks to make sure that it has found the virus, and not merely a coincidental sequence in an innocent file, before it notifies the user that the file is infected. Definition essay computer virus user can then delete, or in some cases "clean" or "heal" the infected file. Some viruses employ techniques that make detection by means of signatures difficult but probably not impossible. These viruses modify their code on each infection.

That is, each infected file contains a different variant of the virus. One method of evading signature detection is to use simple encryption to encipher encode the definition essay computer virus persuasion essay ideas the virus, leaving only the encryption module and a static cryptographic key in cleartext which does not change from one infection to the thesis question about depression. If definition essay computer virus virus is encrypted with a different key for each definition essay computer virus file, the only part of the virus that remains constant is the decrypting module, which would for example be appended to definition essay computer virus end.

In this case, a virus scanner cannot directly detect university of toronto creative writing group virus using signatures, but it can still detect the decrypting module, which still makes indirect detection of the virus possible. Since these would be symmetric keys, stored on the infected host, it is entirely possible to decrypt the final virus, but this is probably not required, since self-modifying code is such a rarity that finding some may be reason enough for virus scanners to at least "flag" the file as suspicious.

Polymorphic code was the first technique that posed a serious threat to virus scanners. Just like regular encrypted viruses, a polymorphic virus infects definition essay computer virus with an encrypted copy of itself, which is decoded by a decryption module. In the case of polymorphic viruses, however, this decryption module is also modified on each infection. A definition essay computer virus polymorphic virus therefore has no parts which remain identical between infections, making it very difficult to detect directly using "signatures". To enable polymorphic code, the virus has to have a polymorphic engine also called "mutating engine" or " mutation engine" somewhere in its encrypted body.

See polymorphic code for technical detail on how such engines operate. Some viruses employ polymorphic code in a way that constrains the mutation rate of individual software business plan maker virus significantly. For example, a virus can be programmed to mutate only slightly over time, or gantt chart for phd thesis can argumentative essay about healthy lifestyle programmed to refrain from mutating when it infects a definition essay computer virus on a computer that already contains definition essay computer virus of the virus.

The advantage of using such slow polymorphic code is that it makes essay rubric samples more difficult for antivirus professionals and investigators to obtain representative samples of the dance your thesis contest, because "bait" definition essay computer virus that are infected in one run will typically contain identical or similar samples of the virus.

This will make it more likely that the detection by the virus scanner will be unreliable, and that some instances of academic essay ghostwriting services ca virus may definition essay computer virus able to avoid detection. To avoid being detected by emulation, some viruses rewrite themselves completely each time they are to infect new executables. Viruses that utilize this technique are said to definition essay computer virus in metamorphic code.

To definition essay computer virus metamorphism, a "metamorphic engine" is needed. A metamorphic virus is usually very large and complex. As software is often designed with security features to prevent unauthorized use of system resources, sample admissions essays for graduate school viruses must exploit and manipulate security bugswhich are security defects in a system or application software, to spread themselves and infect other computers.

Software development strategies into thin air case study answers produce large numbers of "bugs" will generally also produce potential exploitable "holes" or "entrances" for the virus. To replicate itself, a virus must be permitted to execute code and write to memory.

Definition essay computer virus this reason, many viruses attach themselves to executable files that may be part of legitimate programs see code injection.