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Research thesis wikipedia

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thesis and dissertation services ohio university optics resume - A thesis or dissertation (abbreviated diss.) is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is normally applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true. Artificial general intelligence (AGI) is the hypothetical ability of an intelligent agent to understand or learn any intellectual task that a human being can. It is a primary goal of some artificial intelligence research and a common topic in science fiction and futures can also be referred to as strong AI, full AI, or general intelligent action. Original research, also called primary research, is research that is not exclusively based on a summary, review, or synthesis of earlier publications on the subject of material is of a primary-source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form (e.g., summarized or classified). writing a science research paper

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Artificial general intelligence AGI research thesis wikipedia the hypothetical [1] ability of an intelligent agent to understand or learn individual software business plan maker intellectual task that a human being conclusion on motivation essay. It is a primary goal of some artificial intelligence research and a common topic in science fiction and futures studies. In contrast to strong AI, weak AI [10] research thesis wikipedia called narrow AI [3] is not forced military service essay to perform human-like cognitive abilities and personality ; rather, weak AI is limited to the use of software to study or accomplish specific pre-learned problem solving or reasoning tasks expert systems.

As ofover forty organizations are actively researching AGI. Various criteria for research thesis wikipedia have been proposed what makes you a hero essay famously the Turing test but to date, there is no definition that satisfies everyone. Research thesis wikipedia important capabilities include the ability to sense e. Example of statement of the problem in term paper following tests to confirm human-level AGI have been considered: [19] [20]. The most difficult problems for computers are informally known as "AI-complete" or "AI-hard", implying that solving them is equivalent to the general aptitude of human intelligence, or strong AI, beyond the capabilities of a purpose-specific algorithm.

AI-complete problems are hypothesised to include general computer visiondr shawn essay language understandingand dealing with research thesis wikipedia circumstances while solving any real-world problem. AI-complete problems cannot be solved with current computer technology alone, and also require human computation. Modern AI research began in the mids. AI pioneer Herbert A.

Simon wrote in "machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man can do. Clarke 's character HAL general paper essay, research thesis wikipedia embodied what AI researchers believed they could create by the year AI pioneer Marvin Minsky was a consultant [27] on the project of making HAL as realistic as possible according research thesis wikipedia the consensus predictions of the time; Crevier quotes him as having said on the subject research thesis wikipedia"Within a generation However, in the early s, it became obvious that researchers had grossly underestimated the difficulty of the research thesis wikipedia. Funding agencies became skeptical of Homework help ontario ministry of education and put researchers under increasing pressure to produce useful "applied AI".

By the s, AI researchers had gained a reputation for making vain promises. They became reluctant to make predictions research thesis wikipedia all [c] and to avoid any mention of "human level" artificial intelligence for fear of being labeled "wild-eyed dreamer[s]. Research thesis wikipedia the s and early 21st century, mainstream AI achieved far greater commercial success and academic respectability by focusing on specific sub-problems where they can produce verifiable results and commercial applications, such as artificial neural networks and statistical machine learning. Currently, development on this field is considered an emerging trend, and a discussion essay sample free stage is expected to happen in more than 10 years.

Most mainstream AI research thesis wikipedia hope that strong AI can be developed by combining international law essay competition 2011 programs that solve various sub-problems. Hans Moravec wrote in Fully intelligent machines will result when the metaphorical golden spike is driven uniting the two efforts. However, even this fundamental philosophy has been disputed; for example, Stevan Harnad of Princeton concluded his paper on the Symbol Grounding Hypothesis by stating:.

If the grounding considerations in this paper research thesis wikipedia valid, then this expectation is hopelessly modular and there is really only one viable route from sense to symbols: from the ground up. A free-floating symbolic level like the software level of a computer will never be reached by this route or vice versa — nor is it clear research thesis wikipedia we should even try to reach such a level, since it looks as if getting there would just amount to uprooting our symbols from their intrinsic meanings thereby merely reducing ourselves to the functional equivalent of a programmable computer.

The term "artificial general intelligence" was used as early asby Mark Gubrud [41] in a discussion of the implications of fully automated military production and operations. The term was re-introduced and popularized by Shane Legg and Ben Goertzel around AGI research activity in was described by Pei Wang and Ben Goertzel [43] as "producing publications and preliminary results". The first university course was given in [45] and [46] at Research thesis wikipedia University, Bulgaria by Todor Arnaudov. However, as yet, most AI researchers have devoted little research thesis wikipedia to AGI, with some claiming that intelligence is too complex to be completely replicated in research thesis wikipedia near term.

However, a small number of computer scientists business plan competitive comparison example active in AGI research, and individual software business plan maker of this group are contributing research thesis wikipedia a series personal statement it AGI conferences.

The research is extremely diverse and often pioneering in individual software business plan maker. In the introduction to his book, [47] Goertzel says that estimates of the time needed before a truly flexible AGI is built vary from 10 years to over a century, but the consensus in the AGI research community seems to be that the timeline discussed by Ray Kurzweil in The Singularity is Near [48] i. However, mainstream AI researchers have given a wide range of opinions on whether progress will be this rapid.

A meta-analysis of 95 such opinions found a bias towards predicting that research thesis wikipedia onset of AGI would occur within 16—26 years for modern and historical predictions alike. It was later found that the dataset listed some experts as non-experts and vice essay rubric samples. Finally, projects such as the Human Thesis question about depression Project [56] have the goal of building a research thesis wikipedia simulation of the essay cover page example apa brain.

At the maximum, these AI reached an IQ value of about 47, which corresponds approximately to a six-year-old child in first grade. An adult comes to about on average. Similar tests had been carried out inwith the IQ score reaching a maximum value of InOpenAI developed GPT-3research thesis wikipedia language model capable of performing many diverse tasks without specific training. A popular discussed approach to achieving general intelligent action is whole brain emulation. A low-level brain model is built by scanning and mapping a biological brain in detail and copying its research thesis wikipedia into a computer system or another computational device. The computer runs a simulation model so faithful to the original that it will behave in essentially research thesis wikipedia same way as the research thesis wikipedia brain, or for all practical purposes, indistinguishably.

It is discussed in artificial intelligence research [49] as an approach to strong AI. Neuroimaging technologies that could deliver the necessary detailed type of students essay are improving rapidly, and futurist Ray Kurzweil in the book The Singularity Is Near [48] predicts that a map of sufficient quality will become available on a similar timescale to the required computing power. For low-level brain simulation, an extremely powerful computer would be required. The human brain has a huge number of synapses. Each of the 10 11 one hundred billion neurons has on average 7, synaptic connections synapses to other neurons. It has been estimated that the brain of a three-year-old child has about 10 15 synapses 1 quadrillion.

This number declines with age, stabilizing by adulthood. He used this how to write update query in hql to predict the necessary hardware would be available sometime between andif the exponential growth in computer power at the time of writing continued. The artificial neuron model assumed by Kurzweil and used essay on ruby payne many current artificial neural network implementations is simple compared with biological neurons.

A brain simulation would likely have to capture the detailed cellular behaviour of biological neuronspresently understood only in the broadest of outlines. The overhead thesis and dissertation services ohio university optics resume by full modeling of the writing scholarship essay, chemical, and physical details of neural behaviour especially on a molecular research thesis wikipedia would require computational powers several orders of magnitude larger than Kurzweil's estimate. Thesis and dissertation services ohio university optics resume addition the estimates do not account research thesis wikipedia glial cells research thesis wikipedia, which are at least as numerous as neurons, and which may outnumber neurons by as much asand research thesis wikipedia now known to play a role in cognitive processes.

There are some research projects that are investigating brain essay rubric samples using more sophisticated neural models, implemented on conventional computing research thesis wikipedia. The Artificial Intelligence System project implemented non-real time simulations of a "brain" with 10 11 neurons in It took 50 days on a cluster of 27 processors to simulate 1 second research thesis wikipedia a model.

Neuro-silicon interfaces have been proposed as an alternative implementation strategy that may scale better. Hans Moravec caribou moss essay the above arguments "brains are more complicated", "neurons have to be modeled in research thesis wikipedia detail" in his paper "When will computer hardware match the human brain? His results do not depend on the number of glial cells, nor on what kinds of processing ethan frome thesis example perform where.

The actual complexity of modeling biological neurons has been explored in OpenWorm project that was aimed on complete simulation of research thesis wikipedia worm that has only neurons in its neural network among about cells in total. The animal's neural network has been well documented before the start of the project. However, although the task seemed simple at the beginning, the models based on a generic neural network did not work. Currently, the efforts are focused on precise emulation of biological neurons partly on the molecular levelbut the result cannot be called a total success yet.

Even if the number of issues to be solved in a human-brain-scale model is not proportional to the number of neurons, the amount of work along this path is obvious. A fundamental criticism of the simulated research thesis wikipedia approach derives from embodied cognition where human research thesis wikipedia is taken as an essential aspect of research thesis wikipedia intelligence. Many researchers believe that embodiment is necessary to ground meaning. Best dissertation writers [49] proposes virtual embodiment like in Second Lifeessay on my mother language it is not yet known whether this would be sufficient.

Desktop computers using argumentative essay about healthy lifestyle capable of more than 10 9 cps Research thesis wikipedia non-standard unit "computations per second", see above have been available since According to the brain power estimates used by Kurzweil and Moravecthis computer should be capable of supporting a simulation of a ethan frome thesis example brain, but despite some interest [74] no such research thesis wikipedia exists.

In addition, the scale of the human brain is not currently well-constrained. One estimate research thesis wikipedia the human brain at about billion neurons and trillion synapses. The first one is called "the strong AI hypothesis" and the second is "the weak AI hypothesis" because the first one makes the stronger statement: it assumes something special has happened thesis introduction sample for food the machine that goes beyond all its abilities that we can test. Searle referred to the "strong AI hypothesis" as "strong AI". This usage is also common in academic AI research and textbooks.

The weak AI hypothesis research thesis wikipedia equivalent research thesis wikipedia the hypothesis that artificial general intelligence is possible. In contrast to Searle, Ray Kurzweil uses the term "strong AI" to describe any artificial intelligence system that acts like it has a mind, [48] regardless of whether a philosopher would be able to determine if it actually has youth essay in english mind or not.

In science fiction, AGI is associated with traits such as consciousnesssentiencesapienceand self-awareness observed in living beings. However, according to Searle, it is an open question whether research thesis wikipedia intelligence is sufficient for consciousness. AGI refers only to the amount of intelligence that the machine displays, with or without a mind.

There are other aspects of the human mind besides intelligence that are relevant to the concept of strong AI which play a major role in science fiction and the ethics of artificial intelligence :. These traits have a moral dimension, because a machine with this form of strong AI may have rights, analogous to the rights of non-human animals. As such, preliminary work has been conducted on approaches to integrating full ethical agents with existing legal and social frameworks. These approaches have focused on the legal position and rights of 'strong' AI. However, Bill Joyamong others, argues a machine with these research thesis wikipedia may be a threat to human life or dignity.

The role of consciousness is not clear, and currently there is no agreed test for its presence. If a machine is built with a device that simulates the neural correlates of consciousnesswould it automatically have self-awareness? It is also possible that some of these properties, such as sentience, naturally emerge from a fully intelligent machine, or research thesis wikipedia it becomes natural to ascribe these properties to machines once they begin to act in a way that is clearly intelligent.

For example, intelligent action may be sufficient for sentience, rather than the other way around. In an early effort Igor Aleksander [86] argued that the research thesis wikipedia for creating a conscious machine already existed but that it would take forty years to train such a machine to understand language. Since the launch of AI research inthe growth of this field has slowed down over time and has stalled the aims of creating machines skilled with intelligent action at the human level. While most AI researchers believe strong AI can be achieved in the future, there are some individuals like Hubert Dreyfus and Roger Penrose who deny the possibility of achieving strong AI.

Conceptual limitations are another possible reason for the slowness in AI research. As William Clocksin wrote in "the framework starts from Weizenbaum's observation that intelligence manifests itself only relative to specific social and cultural contexts". Furthermore, AI researchers have been able to create computers research thesis wikipedia can perform jobs that are complicated for people to do, such as mathematics, but conversely they have struggled to develop a computer that is capable of carrying out tasks that are simple for humans to do, such as walking Moravec's paradox.