✪✪✪ Speech On Population Control

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Speech On Population Control

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Group of Scientists Calls for Population Control: Speak Out

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Wooley v. In some countries, blasphemy is a crime. For example, in Austria, defaming Muhammad , the prophet of Islam, is not protected as free speech. Certain public institutions may also enact policies restricting the freedom of speech, for example speech codes at state-operated schools. In the U. Ohio , [42] expressly overruling Whitney v. Supreme Court referred to the right even to speak openly of violent action and revolution in broad terms:. The opinion in Brandenburg discarded the previous test of "clear and present danger" and made the right to freedom of political speech protections in the United States almost absolute. City of St.

Paul , in which the Supreme Court ruled that hate speech is permissible, except in the case of imminent violence. Limitations based on time, place, and manner apply to all speech, regardless of the view expressed. For example, a time, place, and manner restriction might prohibit a noisy political demonstration at a politician's home during the middle of the night, as that impinges upon the rights of the politician's neighbors to quiet enjoyment of their own homes. An otherwise identical activity might be permitted if it happened at a different time e. Jo Glanville, editor of the Index on Censorship , states that "the Internet has been a revolution for censorship as much as for free speech". In , in the landmark cyberlaw case of Reno v.

Dalzell , one of the three federal judges who in June declared parts of the CDA unconstitutional, in his opinion stated the following: [52]. The Internet is a far more speech-enhancing medium than print , the village green , or the mails. Because it would necessarily affect the Internet itself, the CDA would necessarily reduce the speech available for adults on the medium.

This is a constitutionally intolerable result. Some of the dialogue on the Internet surely tests the limits of conventional discourse. Speech on the Internet can be unfiltered, unpolished, and unconventional, even emotionally charged, sexually explicit, and vulgar — in a word, "indecent" in many communities. But we should expect such speech to occur in a medium in which citizens from all walks of life have a voice. We should also protect the autonomy that such a medium confers to ordinary people as well as media magnates.

The Government can continue to protect children from pornography on the Internet through vigorous enforcement of existing laws criminalising obscenity and child pornography. In my view, our action today should only mean that Government's permissible supervision of Internet contents stops at the traditional line of unprotected speech. The strength of the Internet is chaos. We reaffirm, as an essential foundation of the Information society, and as outlined in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, that everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; that this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

Communication is a fundamental social process, a basic human need and the foundation of all social organisation. It is central to the Information Society. Everyone, everywhere should have the opportunity to participate and no one should be excluded from the benefits of the Information Society offers. According to Bernt Hugenholtz and Lucie Guibault, the public domain is under pressure from the " commodification of information" as information with previously little or no economic value has acquired independent economic value in the information age. This includes factual data, personal data , genetic information and pure ideas.

The commodification of information is taking place through intellectual property law, contract law , as well as broadcasting and telecommunications law. Freedom of information is an extension of freedom of speech where the medium of expression is the Internet. Freedom of information may also refer to the right to privacy in the context of the Internet and information technology. As with the right to freedom of expression, the right to privacy is a recognised human right and freedom of information acts as an extension to this right.

Freedom of information is also explicitly protected by acts such as the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act of Ontario, in Canada. The Access to Information Act gives Canadian citizens, permanent residents, and any person or corporation present in Canada a right to access records of government institutions that are subject to the Act. The concept of freedom of information has emerged in response to state sponsored censorship, monitoring and surveillance of the internet. Internet censorship includes the control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet. A widely publicized example of internet censorship is the " Great Firewall of China " in reference both to its role as a network firewall and to the ancient Great Wall of China.

The system blocks content by preventing IP addresses from being routed through and consists of standard firewall and proxy servers at the Internet gateways. The system also selectively engages in DNS poisoning when particular sites are requested. The government does not appear to be systematically examining Internet content, as this appears to be technically impractical. Censorship systems are vigorously implemented by provincial branches of state-owned ISPs , business companies, and organizations. Some legal scholars such as Tim Wu of Columbia University have argued that the traditional issues of free speech -- that "the main threat to free speech" is the censorship of "suppressive states," and that "ill-informed or malevolent speech" can and should be overcome by "more and better speech" rather than censorship -- assumes a scarcity of information.

This scarcity prevailed during the 20th century, but with the arrival of the internet, information became plentiful, "but the attention of listeners" scarce. And in the words of Wu, this "cheap speech" made possible by the internet " In the 21st century, the danger is not "suppressive states" that target "speakers directly", but that. Before the invention of the printing press , a written work, once created, could only be physically multiplied by highly laborious and error-prone manual copying. No elaborate system of censorship and control over scribes existed, who until the 14th century were restricted to religious institutions, and their works rarely caused wider controversy. In response to the printing press , and the theological heresies it allowed to spread, the Roman Catholic Church moved to impose censorship.

The Index Expurgatorius was administered by the Roman Inquisition , but enforced by local government authorities, and went through editions. As a consequence, governments established controls over printers across Europe, requiring them to have official licenses to trade and produce books. The notion that the expression of dissent or subversive views should be tolerated, not censured or punished by law, developed alongside the rise of printing and the press. Areopagitica , published in , was John Milton 's response to the Parliament of England's re-introduction of government licensing of printers, hence publishers. In Areopagitica , published without a license, [73] Milton made an impassioned plea for freedom of expression and toleration of falsehood, [72] stating:.

Give me the liberty to know, to utter, and to argue freely according to conscience, above all liberties. Milton's defense of freedom of expression was grounded in a Protestant worldview, and he thought that the English people had the mission to work out the truth of the Reformation , which would lead to the enlightenment of all people. But Milton also articulated the main strands of future discussions about freedom of expression. By defining the scope of freedom of expression and of "harmful" speech Milton argued against the principle of pre-censorship and in favor of tolerance for a wide range of views. As the "menace" of printing spread, more governments attempted to centralize control. In the British Crown thought to stem the flow of seditious and heretical books by chartering the Stationers' Company.

The right to print was limited to the members of that guild, and thirty years later the Star Chamber was chartered to curtail the "greate enormities and abuses" of "dyvers contentyous and disorderlye persons professinge the arte or mystere of pryntinge or selling of books. As the British crown took control of type founding in printers fled to the Netherlands. Confrontation with authority made printers radical and rebellious, with authors, printers and book dealers being incarcerated in the Bastille in Paris before it was stormed in A succession of English thinkers was at the forefront of early discussion on a right to freedom of expression, among them John Milton —74 and John Locke — Locke established the individual as the unit of value and the bearer of rights to life , liberty , property and the pursuit of happiness.

However Locke's ideas evolved primarily around the concept of the right to seek salvation for one's soul, and was thus primarily concerned with theological matters. Locke neither supported a universal toleration of peoples nor freedom of speech; according to his ideas, some groups, such as atheists, should not be allowed. By the second half of the 17th century philosophers on the European continent like Baruch Spinoza and Pierre Bayle developed ideas encompassing a more universal aspect freedom of speech and toleration than the early English philosophers.

John Stuart Mill — argued that without human freedom there can be no progress in science, law or politics, which according to Mill required free discussion of opinion. Mill's On Liberty , published in became a classic defence of the right to freedom of expression. Truth is not stable or fixed, but evolves with time. Mill argued that much of what we once considered true has turned out false.

Therefore, views should not be prohibited for their apparent falsity. Mill also argued that free discussion is necessary to prevent the "deep slumber of a decided opinion". Discussion would drive the onwards march of truth and by considering false views the basis of true views could be re-affirmed. For Mill, the only instance in which speech can be justifiably suppressed is in order to prevent harm from a clear and direct threat. Neither economic or moral implications, nor the speakers own well-being would justify suppression of speech. In her biography of Voltaire , Evelyn Beatrice Hall coined the following sentence to illustrate Voltaire's beliefs: "I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.

Dictators such as Stalin and Hitler , were in favor of freedom of speech for views they liked only. If you're in favor of freedom of speech, that means you're in favor of freedom of speech precisely for views you despise. However, critics argue that society should be concerned by those who directly deny or advocate, for example, genocide see limitations above. Wells met with Stalin in and was hopeful of reform in the Soviet Union. However during their meeting in Moscow Wells said, "the free expression of opinion—even of opposition opinion, I do not know if you are prepared yet for that much freedom here. The novel Lady Chatterley's Lover by D.

Lawrence was banned for obscenity in a number of countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and Canada. In the late s and early s, it was the subject of landmark court rulings which saw the ban for obscenity overturned. Dominic Sandbrook of The Telegraph in the UK wrote, "Now that public obscenity has become commonplace, it is hard to recapture the atmosphere of a society that saw fit to ban books such as Lady Chatterley's Lover because it was likely to 'deprave and corrupt' its readers. In comedian Lenny Bruce was arrested in the U. A three-judge panel presided over his widely publicized six-month trial in which he was found guilty of obscenity in November He was sentenced on 21 December , to four months in a workhouse.

On 23 December , thirty-seven years after Bruce's death, New York Governor George Pataki granted him a posthumous pardon for his obscenity conviction. In the United States, the right to freedom of expression has been interpreted to include the right to take and publish photographs of strangers in public areas without their permission or knowledge. In July , the University of Chicago released the " Chicago Statement ," a free speech policy statement designed to combat censorship on campus.

This statement was later adopted by a number of top-ranked universities including Princeton University , Washington University in St. Commentators such as Vox ' s Zack Beauchamp and Chris Quintana, writing in The Chronicle of Higher Education , have disputed the assumption that college campuses are facing a "free-speech crisis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For free speech restrictions on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Free speech. For the Eddie Harris album, see Free Speech album. For other uses, see Freedom of expression disambiguation and Freedom of speech disambiguation. Right to communicate one's opinions and ideas. Age of Enlightenment List of liberal theorists contributions to liberal theory. Schools of thought. Regional variants.

Related topics. For specific country examples, see Freedom of speech by country and criminal speech. Main article: Time, place and manner. Main article: Freedom of information. Main articles: Internet censorship and Internet censorship by country.

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