⚡ Witchcraft In America

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Witchcraft In America



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Pagan practices formed a part of Russian and Eastern Slavic culture; the Russian people were deeply superstitious. The witchcraft practiced consisted mostly of earth magic and herbology; it was not so significant which herbs were used in practices, but how these herbs were gathered. Ritual centered on harvest of the crops and the location of the sun was very important. Spells also served for midwifery, shape-shifting, keeping lovers faithful, and bridal customs. Spells dealing with midwifery and childbirth focused on the spiritual wellbeing of the baby. Her sweat would be wiped from her body using raw fish, and the fish would be cooked and fed to the groom.

Demonism, or black magic, was not prevalent. Persecution for witchcraft, mostly involved the practice of simple earth magic, founded on herbology, by solitary practitioners with a Christian influence. In one case investigators found a locked box containing something bundled in a kerchief and three paper packets, wrapped and tied, containing crushed grasses. While these customs were unique to Russian culture, they were not exclusive to this region. Russian pagan practices were often akin to paganism in other parts of the world. The Chinese concept of chi , a form of energy that often manipulated in witchcraft, is known as bioplasma in Russian practices.

Spoilers could be made by gathering bone from a cemetery, a knot of the target's hair, burned wooden splinters and several herb Paris berries which are very poisonous. Placing these items in sachet in the victim's pillow completes a spoiler. The Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and the ancient Egyptians recognized the evil eye from as early as 3, BCE; in Russian practices it is seen as a sixteenth-century concept. The dominant societal concern those practicing witchcraft was not whether paganism was effective, but whether it could cause harm. Impotence, stomach pains, barrenness, hernias, abscesses, epileptic seizures, and convulsions were all attributed to evil or witchcraft.

This is reflected in linguistics; there are numerous words for a variety of practitioners of paganism-based healers. Ironically enough, there was universal reliance on folk healers — but clients often turned them in if something went wrong. According to Russian historian Valerie A. Kivelson, witchcraft accusations were normally thrown at lower-class peasants, townspeople and Cossacks. People turned to witchcraft as a means to support themselves. Males were targeted more, because witchcraft was associated with societal deviation. Because single people with no settled home could not be taxed, males typically had more power than women in their dissent.

The history of Witchcraft had evolved around society. More of a psychological concept to the creation and usage of Witchcraft can create the assumption as to why women are more likely to follow the practices behind Witchcraft. Identifying with the soul of an individual's self is often deemed as "feminine" in society. There is analyzed social and economic evidence to associate between witchcraft and women.

Witchcraft trials frequently occurred in seventeenth-century Russia, although the " great witch-hunt " is believed [ by whom? However, as the witchcraft-trial craze swept across Catholic and Protestant countries during this time, Orthodox Christian Europe indeed partook in this so-called "witch hysteria. Very early on witchcraft legally fell under the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical body, the church, in Kievan Rus' and Muscovite Russia. The sentence for an individual who was found guilty of witchcraft or sorcery during this time, as well as in previous centuries, typically included either burning at the stake or being tested with the " ordeal of cold water " or judicium aquae frigidae. Accused persons who submerged were considered innocent, and ecclesiastical authorities would proclaim them "brought back", but those who floated were considered guilty of practicing witchcraft, and they were either burned at the stake or executed in an unholy fashion.

The thirteenth-century bishop of Vladimir, Serapion Vladimirskii, preached sermons throughout the Muscovite countryside, and in one particular sermon revealed that burning was the usual punishment for witchcraft, but more often the cold water test was used as a precursor to execution. Although these two methods of torture were used in the west and the east, Russia implemented a system of fines payable for the crime of witchcraft during the seventeenth century.

Thus, even though torture methods in Muscovy were on a similar level of harshness as Western European methods used, a more civil method was present. In the introduction of a collection of trial records pieced together by Russian scholar Nikolai Novombergsk, he argues that Muscovite authorities used the same degree of cruelty and harshness as Western European Catholic and Protestant countries in persecuting witches. Tsar Ivan IV reigned — took this matter to the ecclesiastical court and was immediately advised that individuals practicing these forms of witchcraft should be excommunicated and given the death penalty.

So, during the Oprichnina — , Ivan IV succeeded in accusing and charging a good number of boyars with witchcraft whom he did not wish to remain as nobles. Rulers after Ivan IV, specifically during the Time of Troubles — , increased the fear of witchcraft among themselves and entire royal families, which then led to further preoccupation with the fear of prominent Muscovite witchcraft circles. After the Time of Troubles , seventeenth-century Muscovite rulers held frequent investigations of witchcraft within their households, laying the groundwork, along with previous tsarist reforms, for widespread witchcraft trials throughout the Muscovite state.

Witches have a long history of being depicted in art, although most of their earliest artistic depictions seem to originate in Early Modern Europe, particularly the Medieval and Renaissance periods. Many scholars attribute their manifestation in art as inspired by texts such as Canon Episcopi , a demonology-centered work of literature, and Malleus Maleficarum , a "witch-craze" manual published in , by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger. Canon Episcopi , a ninth-century text that explored the subject of demonology, initially introduced concepts that would continuously be associated with witches, such as their ability to fly or their believed fornication and sexual relations with the devil.

The text refers to two women, Diana the Huntress and Herodias, who both express the duality of female sorcerers. Diana was described as having a heavenly body and as the "protectress of childbirth and fertility" while Herodias symbolized "unbridled sensuality". They thus represent the mental powers and cunning sexuality that witches used as weapons to trick men into performing sinful acts which would result in their eternal punishment. These characteristics were distinguished as Medusa-like or Lamia-like traits when seen in any artwork Medusa's mental trickery was associated with Diana the Huntress's psychic powers and Lamia was a rumored female figure in the Medieval ages sometimes used in place of Herodias.

His famous engraving The Four Witches , portrays four physically attractive and seductive nude witches. Their supernatural identities are emphasized by the skulls and bones lying at their feet as well as the devil discreetly peering at them from their left. The women's sensuous presentation speaks to the overtly sexual nature they were attached to in early modern Europe.

Moreover, this attractiveness was perceived as a danger to ordinary men who they could seduce and tempt into their sinful world. Specifically, his art often referred to former 12th- to 13th-century Medieval iconography addressing the nature of female sorcerers. In the Medieval period, there was a widespread fear of witches, accordingly producing an association of dark, intimidating characteristics with witches, such as cannibalism witches described as "[sucking] the blood of newborn infants" [] or described as having the ability to fly, usually on the back of black goats.

As the Renaissance period began, these concepts of witchcraft were suppressed, leading to a drastic change in the sorceress' appearances, from sexually explicit beings to the 'ordinary' typical housewives of this time period. This depiction, known as the 'Waldensian' witch became a cultural phenomenon of early Renaissance art. The term originates from the 12th-century monk Peter Waldo, who established his own religious sect which explicitly opposed the luxury and commodity-influenced lifestyle of the Christian church clergy, and whose sect was excommunicated before being persecuted as "practitioners of witchcraft and magic".

Subsequent artwork exhibiting witches tended to consistently rely on cultural stereotypes about these women. These stereotypes were usually rooted in early Renaissance religious discourse, specifically the Christian belief that an "earthly alliance" had taken place between Satan's female minions who "conspired to destroy Christendom". His chiaroscuro woodcut, Witches , created in , visually encompassed all the characteristics that were regularly assigned to witches during the Renaissance.

Social beliefs labeled witches as supernatural beings capable of doing great harm, possessing the ability to fly, and as cannibalistic. Meanwhile, their nudity while feasting is recognized as an allusion to their sexual appetite, and some scholars read the witch riding on the back of a goat-demon as representative of their "flight-inducing [powers]". This connection between women's sexual nature and sins was thematic in the pieces of many Renaissance artists, especially Christian artists, due to cultural beliefs which characterized women as overtly sexual beings who were less capable in comparison to men of resisting sinful temptation. Reference of witches in literature span a wide array of characterization with respect to popular opinion on the definition of the female figure.

In contribution to a better understanding of the social understandings involving witchcraft and magic, literature often labels the witch as villain, victim, or heroine. Various scholars associate these labels with the female witch within texts such as the German fairy tale " Hansel and Gretel " by Brothers Grimm and Stella Benson 's work Living Alone The fairy tale involves a cannibalistic witch that eventually becomes outwitted by the children she tries to eat and is burned to death in her own oven. The witch is labeled an evil queen and meets her demise after being forced to dance in red-hot iron shoes. In retaliation, the figure labeled as witch is eventually burned at the stake.

Such examples within the Brothers Grimm's works demonstrate not only evidence of the figure of "witch villain" but also exhibits their punishment by injury or violent death. Significant authors such as Friedrich Spee and John Gaule demonstrate the witch as a victim to social cruelties, highlighting examples of torture towards witches or those females suspected of wizardry. Such works not only feature evidence toward excessive brutality, but display excessive inclination toward extreme violence in the conviction of guiltless victims.

Living Alone , published in , uses female liberation as a metaphor in support of the "witch heroine". Stella Benson's novel surrounds the musings of a female witch who functions as an archaic force in the lives of middle-class Londoners. Her non-harmful magic aims to "shake the most downtrodden women out of complacency and normality" to meet a state of liberation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Practice of magical skills and abilities. For other uses, see Witchcraft disambiguation. For other uses, see Witch disambiguation. Further information: Witch word. See also: Magic supernatural. Main article: Demonology.

Main article: White witch. Further information: Folk religion , Magical thinking , and Shamanism. Main article: Wicca. Main article: Traditional witchcraft. Main article: Stregheria. Main article: Satanism and Witchcraft. Main article: Witchcraft and divination in the Hebrew Bible. See also: Christian views on magic. See also: Witchcraft and divination in the Hebrew Bible. See also: Islam and astrology and Superstitions in Muslim societies. See why. August Further information: Witchcraft accusations against children in Africa. For the percussion instrument, see Djembe. Main article: Asian witchcraft.

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It was only a matter of time before I began thinking about what this word 'witch' means to modern women. I began to wonder, 'Who calls herself a witch now? In the years that followed, Denny traversed the country, meeting more than 70 women who identify as witches, unearthing traits of power and perseverance in all of them. Here, she tells Refinery29 the story of her odyssey, and shares some of her favorite photographs from along the way.

Frances F. Denny: "When I began the project, I composed a carefully worded letter that I used to explain who I am and what my intentions are for the project, and that is how I reached out to people. Once I had met and photographed around eight to 10 people, I was able to meet others very easily through referrals. As it turns out, there are a lot of witches out there! More than we realize, I think. Sotheby's to spotlight overlooked female Old Masters in landmark auction. I received support from a fellowship that helped fund the travel required to photograph over 70 individuals around the country, from California to Louisiana to New Jersey to Maine.

From Wiccan high priestesses to millennial feminists, there is really no one way to be a witch. It's important to acknowledge that a pagan Wiccan Witch is a religious affiliation, and that there are tensions between some old-guard Wiccans and newcomers to witchcraft, who don't necessarily see themselves as religious or pagan but perhaps identify with the witch archetype for its fierceness, outsider status, and cultivated inner power. Some witches are solitary practitioners; some join circles or covens. Included in the series are self-proclaimed green witches, white witches, sex witches, kitchen witches, and space witches.

Many of these monikers refer to a kind of outward-facing healing modality. For example, a green witch is a herbalist, using her knowledge of plants and herbs to treat or heal others. Then there are those whose work is more directly related to their witchcraft practice, like tarot card readers, and several women who own and operate apothecaries. Some of the individuals I met are prominent figures in the witchcraft community -- they are authors, speakers, and a few have even founded their own branches of Wicca. I see witchcraft as effecting internal or external change.

And in my experience, the witch is a person who is self-possessed, who is maybe a little or a lot anti-authoritarian, and who is interested in embracing the murkier, less conventionally acceptable sides of ourselves. Young women are disillusioned with patriarchal messaging and governance, and witchcraft has given them a way to cultivate energy, power and agency on their own terms. In that way, I think it is subversive. But it's important to remember that modern witchcraft has historically always been distinctly counterculture, even 'fringe' practice. It's only recently that it's become more interesting to the mainstream.

And there is definitely some tension about that in the community. It is not merely a word, but an archetype, a cluster of powerful images The price we pay for clarity of definition must not be a reduction in the force of this cluster of images. I wanted to create the 'cluster of powerful images' that make up this enigmatic archetype. Furthermore, while I wanted to shed light on modern witches, I also wanted to be careful not to de-fang the witch for my viewers by 'clarifying' my subjects too much for them.

There is a lot of power in retaining a little mystery. That's one reason I didn't include extensive captions about my subjects -- I don't want to pin them down. I am sensitive to the fact that the act of photographing someone is reductive, and places them at the mercy of the photographer's framework, but I was clear with my subjects about my intentions, and tried to give them some agency in how they were represented. I ask my subject how they define 'witch' for themselves, how long they've felt themselves a witch, and what kinds of practices make up their witchcraft.

In the cities, Witchcraft In America training could Black Hawk Down Research Paper Witchcraft In America several months. McCormick Witchcraft In America, p. Judaism does Witchcraft In America it clear that Jews shall not try to learn about the ways of witches Witchcraft In America of Deuteronomy 9—10 and that witches are to be put to Witchcraft In America Exodus Witchcraft In America See also: Witchcraft In America and divination in Witchcraft In America Hebrew Bible. ByMandan, Human Dignity: Why Kids Sext By Francis Fukuyama, Witchcraft In America Arikara Witchcraft In America sharing one village.