✍️✍️✍️ Active Member Involvement Essay

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Active Member Involvement Essay

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The Duties and Responsibilities of Citizens

There are, therefore, no grounds for the oft-repeated error wherein the "moral law" the ethical is in some way distinguished from the "ceremonial law" the cultic in Israel's values system. There can be no such distinction! That which is ethical is right because God has declared it so; the cultic portions of the Law likewise determine what is right for the same reason. Because of this, cult and ethics often appear fused in the Bible, as in Cain's admission of guilt for a faulty sacrifice and the murder of his brother Gen ; a similar fusion of the cultic and the ethical occurs in Genesis "the sin of the Amorites" , where idolatry and unethical activity are considered as one.

If God is the definer of what is good 2 Sam ; Mark ; Luke , right Gen , and just Job , it is not surprising that the Bible never attributes moral or cultic evil to him Job Indeed, he hates evil Psalm and is the avenging judge who punishes those who practice it Isa ; Micah On the other hand, what ethicists term physical evil or, natural evil is often connected with the activities of God, and thus demonstrates the importance of defining these categories before discussing the subject further. An ethicist may distinguish these two types of evil thus: 1 moral evil, which is real if any intellectual being knowingly does anything he or she ought not to have done without being compelled to do it; and 2 physical evil, which is real if some beings have suffered in situations caused by nonrational beings, or through actions of rational beings acting nonrationally.

Moral Evil and Sin. Distinguishing moral evil from sin is no simple task, yet it must be attempted before any discussion may proceed further. First, it is important to differentiate a sin an individual expression of sin from generic sin, the condition that gives rise to its expression. An individual sin, as mentioned earlier, is an acting out of cultic or social evil. But generic sin is the condition that gives rise to the evil expressed in the individual sin. However sin and evil may be considered by a secularist, the theological perspective held by the Bible that presupposes an involvement by God in his creation and an active will of God governing that creation requires that evil assume a theological dimension.

Accordingly, moral evil finds its roots in disobedience, whether deliberate or accidental, premeditated or unpremeditated, cultic or ethical, to the revealed will of God, and as such, becomes associated with generic sin and virtually synonymous with wickedness. The stress in the Old Testament lies not on the conceptual, but in the practical outworking of a state of disharmony with God and one's fellow humans. The origins for sin and evil in both Old and New Testaments are traced to the activities of an evil creature, Satan 1 John : "the devil has been sinning from the beginning" and to human sin that led to a fall Rom and banishment form Eden and the tree of life Gen 3. Cultic and Social Evil. In biblical theology, natural revelation ties humanity in general to a responsibility before God which, when ignored, leads to human relationships that are immoral Rom In both Testaments, proper worship and social ethics are subsumed in a common covenant that ties the people of God to him and to one another.

Since what God ordains is good, what is ethical is not clearly differentiated from what is cultic. Both belong to that aspect of sin that sets itself against the divinely instituted order, whether social or cultic, and thus inexorable finds itself in incessant conflict with God. Like Gollum's ring in The Hobbit or the addict's first "fix, " evil does not always seem immediately repulsive, but may even be seen as attractive on superficial examination Gen , while profoundly destructive at a deeper level Isa Because what is right was what was ordained by God, and what is wrong was what was proscribed by him, deviation from this paradigm constitutes what is evil.

The most common term for cultic evil in the Old Testament used over times is awon [! A'[ ], "perversion, " possibly related to the verb awah [ h"w'[ ], "to be bent, " "to twist. Because of Israel's holistic modes of thought, the word may be used to describe: 1 the evil action itself particularly when found in the plural, e. It may be used to describe idolatry Exod ; Joshua ; cf. Jer ; Ezek ; Ezekiel Ezekiel Ezekiel , trivializing the deity 2 Sa , apostasy Jer , breach of the covenant Jer , or other activities that would in some way demean God's character or name 1 Sam It may refer to doing away with the fear of God Job or a lack of steadfastness toward him Psalm and it functions to alienate the individual from God Lev ; Isa Prohibitions sometimes list words for "sin" together with awon [!

A'[ ], emphasizing its theological coloring e. A frequently used word to convey the wrongness of idolatry is awen [ w'a ], denoting what is empty of any redeeming value. It may, therefore, denote "trouble, sorrow" as when the dying Rachel names her son Ben-oni, "son of my sorrow" Gen The word is often used along with "toil" or "labor, " and in such cases may designate the sin that brings the trouble Psalm ; Isa It may also be used to emphasize the absence of any theological value to a religious exercise Isa Taking on the nuance of power used in a harmful manner, in Psalm awen [ w'a ] may designate "deceit.

Other common words for evil include the nouns awel, awla, derived from a root meaning "to deviate. They are used to describe what is not right Leviticus Leviticus and dishonest business practices Deut Although Ezekiel generally seems to stress a need for cultic correctness, he uses awel to denote moral lapse, dishonesty ; Ezekiel Ezekiel ; such as taking usury and showing partiality in judgment , dishonest trade that desecrates the sanctuaries , and taking pledges for loans, stealing, and so on Moreover, awel is sometimes found in one's hand Both words are clearly seen as denoting actions by their frequent use as objects of verbs of doing. They are frequently seen as antonyms for words denoting justice, faithfulness, honesty, proper just administration, and rightness.

They are frequently paired with synonyms with other words denoting persecution, wickedness, rebellion, violence, and evil. Many Hebrew words are used for both cultic and social evil. For example, awon [! A'[ ] may also be used to describe social evil. In Genesis , the brothers use it to describe their abuse of Joseph. It is used frequently to describe unwholesome sexual activities Lev , adultery Numbers Numbers , and other civil or social perversions 1 Samuel 1 Samuel ; 2 Sam ; Neh ; Psalm The words rasa [ [;v'r ], resa [ [;v,r ] are the most important antonyms for "what is right, just.

The words ra [ [;r ], roa, and raa [ [;['r ], "harmful, harm, " may be used in indicating something evil as bad, with ra [ [;r ] frequently appearing as the opposite of good. Sometimes its meaning is moral, sometimes cultic evil, but often both. Hosea's favorite word for evil is ra [ [;r ]. The evil man in Proverbs will be punished, will be ensnared by the transgression of his lips , and has no future Job complains that the evil man is spared in the day of calamity In Jeremiah , Israel, the unfaithful wife of Yahweh, has so departed from his ways that she is able to teach her ways even to evil women. The men in 1 Samuel termed evil are those who had pursued the Amalekites with David but who had selfishly decided that those left to guard the baggage should not share in the Amalekite spoil.

In Genesis the word describes the men of Sodom. In Psalm , evil things are devised in the hearts of violent men. The Revised Standard Version interprets ra [ [;r ] in Psalm as the "evildoer. In the New Testament the words poneros [ ponhrov" ] and kakos [ kakov" ] and their compounds and derivatives along with anomia [ ajnomiva ], "lawlessness, " have been used to denote what is bad or evil, and may either denote violations of social or cultic norms. The word kakos [ kakov" ], its compounds and derivatives, denoted what was "bad, " the opposite of good. In the Septuagint kakos [ kakov" ] most often denoted an evil that objectively hurt one's existence, which may have come as a judgment of God Deut ; Amos b.

The word appears in the New Testament without the attendant problems of theodicy that appear in its Old Testament setting. If you asked me at my grade 8 graduation, I would have said that it was 40 hours of volunteering required to receive your high school diploma. Four years and over community service hours later. What is the importance of a community? A community is a loving place where people live and love each other ,but other communities have problems with their inhabitants. First, What a loving community is made of. Second, what a negative community is composed of. The world could always use more loving communities. What makes up loving communities. In the classic novel by S. E Henton The Outsiders the gang known as the greasers have a loving community.

Everyone treats everyone else nicely in this community. The idea of community is especially prominent in modern Christianity in addition to the progressive movements that have been emerging within the spectrum of Christianity over the past few decades. This push for community building has resulted in the heightened acceptance of marginalized groups and individuals within various communities throughout the United States, specifically. A community garden was started in Cleveland Ohio just by one person therefore everyone follows. They all learn how to get along with other people, how to not stereotype so much, and how to depend on each other in their community.

All of them struggle with something, whether it's with family, friends, or feeling stereotyped. They learn the importance of a community, and realize how much they really depend on each other. Seedfolks shows that having a community is important for all. Community is very important and has many factors like kinship, unity, and identity. Community helps society because it creates solutions, provides security and reveals dedication. It discovers truthfulness. Communities are part of everyday life and have positive affects on its members.

Composite sketches of three suspected terrorists, two men and a woman, were posted everywhere in the city and shown on TV. At Russian television reported the attempt to blow out the building in Ryazan and identified the explosive used in the bomb as RDX. A news report at reported that the explosives failed to detonate during their testing outside the city. At , Vladimir Putin praised the vigilance of the inhabitants of Ryazan, and called for the air bombing of the Chechen capital Grozny in response to the terrorism acts. If the sacks which proved to contain explosive were noticed, that means there is a positive side to it, if only the fact that the public is reacting correctly to the events taking place in our country today.

I'd like No panic, no sympathy for the bandits. On 23 September Natalia Yukhnova, a telephone service employee in Ryazan, tapped into a suspicious phone call to Moscow and overheard the following instruction: "Leave one at a time, there are patrols everywhere". When arrested, the detainees produced FSB identification cards. They were soon released on orders from Moscow. The position of Russian authorities on the Ryazan incident changed significantly over time. Initially, it was declared by the FSB and federal government to be a real threat. However, after the people who planted the bomb were identified, the official version changed to "security training".

On 24 September, FSB director Nikolai Patrushev announced that it was an exercise that was being carried out to test responses after the earlier blasts. The Ryazan FSB "reacted with fury" and issued a statement saying: [74]. This announcement came as a surprise to us and appeared at the moment when the FSB had identified the places of residence in Ryazan of those involved in planting the explosive device and was prepared to detain them.

FSB also issued a public apology about the incident. Tkachenko said that he was completely certain that the instrument was in correct working order. Meticulous care in the handling of the gas analyser was a necessity because the lives of the bomb squad experts depended on the reliability of their equipment. Speaking of the detonator, Voloshin noted that people who disarmed the device Tkachenko and his bomb squad claimed that the detonator attached to the sacks was not a dummy and had been prepared on a professional level. According to the proceedings, a bomb disposal expert who arrived to the scene has twice performed a test which didn't show the presence of explosive particles. The head of the bomb squad Tkachenko, who arrived soon after that, made a test himself and found the RDX.

The investigator who questioned Yuri Tkachenko concluded that the detection of RDX was made possible by contamination of Yuri Tkachenko's hands, since the latter worked with explosives containing RDX on the day before the incident without wearing sterile gloves. Another detail concerned the type of a device used to detect the explosives. However, during Tkachenko's questioning it was revealed that he had used the device "Exprel" for the analysis. The investigation has resolved the contradiction in the following way.

The device has a high degree of imprecision, and the analysis takes a long time. So, the bomb squad used the device "Exprel", which is more robust, accurate and easy to use. But since they were not supposed to possess that device, the bomb squad has submitted the paperwork which showed that the gas analyser "M" had been used. According to Sergeyev, it was packed in a briefcase and acted like a litmus test from school. The substance to be investigated was wiped by a collection paper, which was subsequently sprayed from an aerosol can. A change of the paper color indicated the presence of explosives. Sergeyev explained the false positive result by prior contamination of the lid of the briefcase, on which Tkachenko poured some sugar from the sacks to perform the test.

Pinyaev guarded a storehouse with weapons and ammunition near the city of Ryazan. Together with a friend, he entered the storehouse to see the weapons. The friends were surprised to see that the storehouse contained sacks with the word "sugar" on them. Pinyaev and his friend were discouraged, but didn't want to leave the storehouse empty-handed. The two paratroopers cut a hole in one of the bags and put some sugar in a plastic bag. They made tea with the sugar, but the taste of the tea was terrible.

They became frightened because the substance might turn out to be saltpeter, and brought the plastic bag to a platoon commander. He consulted a sapper, who identified the substance as hexogen. According to Grozin and Vishnevoy, there is no storehouse at the test range of the th Regiment. Alexei Pinyaev has admitted meeting with Pavel Voloshin, but claimed that he was merely asked to confirm a pre-conceived story. At an FSB press conference in , Private Pinyayev stated that there was no hexogen in the th Airborne Regiment and that he was hospitalised in December and no longer visited the test range.

Later FSB declared that the explosive used in the bombings was a mixture of aluminium powder , ammonium nitrate , TNT and sugar prepared by the perpetrators in a concrete mixer at a fertiliser factory in Urus-Martan , Chechnya. RDX is produced in only one factory in Russia, in the city of Perm. The ministry developed a plan for a limited military campaign to occupy the northern third of Chechnya up to the Terek River valley. Putin strongly supported the initial plan to occupy only the northern third of Chechnya. The invasion of militants in Dagestan accelerated the schedule for such a campaign. However, after the apartment bombings, "the usually cool and cautious Putin was swept away in the popular outrage" and decided to approve a much more ambitious campaign to subdue all of Chechnya.

The Russian Army was not ready to pursue the extended campaign, which resulted in a prolonged conflict. In July , Russian journalist Aleksandr Zhilin, writing in the Moskovskaya pravda , warned that there would be terrorist attacks in Moscow organised by the government. Using a leaked Kremlin document as evidence, he added that the motive would be to undermine the opponents of the Russian President Boris Yeltsin. However, this warning was ignored. According to Amy Knight , "even more significant is the fact that a respected and influential Duma deputy, Konstantin Borovoi , was told on September 9, the day of the first Moscow apartment bombing, that there was to be a terrorist attack in the city.

His source was an officer of the Russian military intelligence GRU. On 13 September, just hours after the second explosion in Moscow, Russian Duma speaker Gennadiy Seleznyov of the Communist Party made an announcement, "I have just received a report. According to information from Rostov-on-Don , an apartment building in the city of Volgodonsk was blown up last night. How should we interpret this? The State Duma knows that the apartment block was destroyed on Monday, and it has indeed been blown up on Thursday [same week] Alexander Litvinenko believed that someone had mixed up the order of the blasts, "the usual Kontora mess up".

According to Litvinenko, "Moscow-2 was on the 13th and Volgodonsk on 16th, but they got it to the speaker the other way around". Later Seleznyov told a Russian newspaper that he actually referred to an explosion organized by criminal gangs, which took place in Volgodonsk and claimed no fatalities. In an August interview with Yuri Dud , Vladimir Zhirinovsky was asked about the incident in State Duma and claimed there was a misunderstanding. The Russian Duma rejected two motions for a parliamentary investigation of the Ryazan incident. On 9 September, an anonymous person, speaking with a Caucasian accent, phoned the Interfax news agency, saying that the blasts in Moscow and Buynaksk were "our response to the bombings of civilians in the villages in Chechnya and Dagestan.

On 13 September , Novaya Gazeta published a report by retired army major Vyacheslav Izmailov, which said that the editorial board of Novaya gazeta had received information about the planned terrorist attacks from its sources in Chechnya. He said that the explosions in Buynaksk and Moscow were carried out by his organisation. In an interview published in Lidove Noviny on September 9, Shamil Basayev denied responsibility for the bombings and said that it had been the work of Dagestanis. According to Basayev, the bombings were a retribution for the military operation of the Russian Army against "three small villages" in Dagestan. In a 12 September interview with Associated Press , Ibn al-Khattab said that "From now on they will get our bombs everywhere!

Let Russia await our explosions blasting through their cities! I swear we will do it! Chechen Foreign Ministry issued an official statement on 14 September condemning Moscow blasts, and affirming that "Ichkeria stands firmly against terrorism in any manifestation". In , investigation of the Buynaksk attack was complete and seven people were convicted of the bombing. Russia's pre-trial investigation of the Moscow and Volgodonsk bombings was finished in According to the Russian State Prosecutor office, [98] [] all apartment bombings were executed under command of ethnic Karachay Achemez Gochiyayev and planned by Ibn al-Khattab and Abu Omar al-Saif , Arab militants fighting in Chechnya on the side of Chechen insurgents.

According to investigators, the explosives were prepared at a fertiliser factory in Urus-Martan Chechnya, by "mixing aluminium powder, nitre and sugar in a concrete mixer", [] or by also putting there RDX and TNT. Another conspirator, Ruslan Magayayev, leased a KamAZ truck in which the sacks were stored for two months. After everything was planned, the participants were organised into several groups which then transported the explosives to different cities. Court hearings on the Moscow and Volgodonsk attacks were held behind closed doors, and were completed in The process has produced 90 volumes of proceedings, 5 of which were classified. En route, they were protected from possible complications by an accomplice, Khakim Abayev, [] who accompanied the trailer in another car.

The explosives were left in a warehouse in Ulitsa Krasnodonskaya, which was leased by pseudo-Laipanov Gochiyayev. Next followed the explosions at the former two addresses. The explosion at 16 Borisovskiye Prudy was prevented. According to the court, 4 September Buinaksk bombing was ordered by Al-Khattab. The explosion in the mall on Manezhnaya Square was the subject of a separate court process held in Moscow in Adam Dekkushev [ ru ] and Yusuf Krymshakhalov [ ru ] have both been sentenced to life terms in a special regime colony.

For instance, Dekkushev acknowledged that he knew the explosives he transported were to be used for an act of terror. Dekkushev also confirmed Gochiyaev's role in the attacks. Krymshakhalov was apprehended and extradicted to Moscow. In a statement released in January , the FSB said, "until we arrest Gochiyayev, the case [of the apartment block bombings of ] will not be closed. In September , hundreds of Chechen nationals out of the more than , permanently living in Moscow were briefly detained and interrogated in Moscow, as a wave of anti-Chechen sentiments swept the city.

Rather, it were Dagestani Wahhabis in the case of the Buinaksk bombing, and Karachay Wahhabis in the case of Moscow and Volgodonsk attacks. According to the official investigation, the following people either delivered explosives, stored them, or harboured other suspects:. An independent public commission to investigate the bombings was chaired by Duma deputy Sergei Kovalyov. After this meeting, Trepashkin began working with the commission. However, the public commission was rendered ineffective because of government refusal to respond to its inquiries. The commission asked lawyer Mikhail Trepashkin to investigate the case. Trepashkin claimed to have found that the basement of one of the bombed buildings was rented by FSB officer Vladimir Romanovich and that the latter was witnessed by several people.

Trepashkin also investigated a letter attributed to Achemez Gochiyayev and found that the alleged assistant of Gochiyayev who arranged the delivery of sacks might have been Kapstroi vice president Alexander Karmishin, a resident of Vyazma. Trepashkin was unable to bring the alleged evidence to the court because he was arrested in October on charges of illegal arms possession and imprisoned in Nizhny Tagil , just a few days before he was to make his findings public. Trepashkin wrote that he learned about the story at a meeting with several RUOP officers in the year They claimed that their colleagues could present eyewitness accounts in a court.

They offered a video tape with evidence against the RDX dealers. Mr Trepashkin did not publicise the meeting fearing for lives of the witnesses and their families. According to Trepashkin, his supervisors and the people from the FSB promised not to arrest him if he left the Kovalev commission and started working together with the FSB "against Alexander Litvinenko".

The talk with the residents of the Ryazan apartment building along with FSB public relations director Alexander Zdanovich and Ryazan branch head Alexander Sergeyev was filmed few days earlier. Malashenko's recollection of Lesin's warning was that by airing the talk show NTV "crossed the line" and that the NTV managers were "outlaws" in the eyes of the Kremlin. Malashenko told him that Valentin Yumashev brought a warning from the Kremlin, one day before airing the show, promising in no uncertain terms that the NTV managers "should consider themselves finished" if they went ahead with the broadcast.

Artyom Borovik was among the people who investigated the bombings. Journalist Anna Politkovskaya and former security service member Alexander Litvinenko , who investigated the bombings, were killed in Surviving victims of the Guryanova street bombing asked President Dmitry Medvedev to resume the official investigation in , [] but it was not resumed. No one from the people who organized the bombings was found, and no one actually was looking for them". Kovalev responded: "I cannot state with full confidence that the explosions were organized by the authorities. Although it's clear that the explosions were useful for them, useful for future President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin , because he had just promised to "waste in the outhouse" as he said everyone who had any relation to terrorism.

It was politically beneficial for him to scare people with terrorism. That is not proven. But what can be stated with full confidence is this: the investigation of both the Moscow explosions and the so-called "exercises" in Ryazan is trumped up. There can be various possibilities. It seems to me, that Ryazan should have been the next explosion, but I cannot prove that. David Satter stated, during his testimony in the United States House of Representatives , that "With Yeltsin and his family facing possible criminal prosecution, however, a plan was put into motion to put in place a successor who would guarantee that Yeltsin and his family would be safe from prosecution and the criminal division of property in the country would not be subject to reexamination.

For "Operation Successor" to succeed, however, it was necessary to have a massive provocation. In my view, this provocation was the bombing in September of the apartment building bombings in Moscow, Buinaksk, and Volgodonsk. In the aftermath of these attacks, which claimed lives, a new war was launched against Chechnya. Putin, the newly appointed prime minister who was put in charge of that war, achieved overnight popularity.

Yeltsin resigned early.

David Active Member Involvement Essay also explains how the concept of personal efficacy affects mass movement mobilization. After a while it just got to me. Ask questions; get answers. There Active Member Involvement Essay credible allegations that Russia's FSB had a hand Active Member Involvement Essay carrying out these attacks. Putin was elected president and his Active Member Involvement Essay act Active Member Involvement Essay to guarantee Yeltsin immunity from prosecution. The Western Front Power must also be a paid-up Active Member Involvement Essay through March 31, Please enter your email Active Member Involvement Essay associated Active Member Involvement Essay your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue.