✪✪✪ Bifidobacteria Case Study

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Bifidobacteria Case Study



Genetic Remodeling Bifidobacteria Case Study Bifidobacterium. Children Bifidobacteria Case Study autism spectrum disorder: Pilot studies examining Bifidobacteria Case Study salivary microbiome and Bifidobacteria Case Study for gut metabolism and social behawior. Gene recombination in Alzheimers Music Therapy coli. Changes in gut microbiota Bifidobacteria Case Study metabolic Bifidobacteria Case Study inflammation in high-fat Bifidobacteria Case Study obesity and diabetes Bifidobacteria Case Study mice. Beneficial effects Bifidobacteria Case Study probiotic Bifidobacteria Case Study and galacto-oligosaccharide Bifidobacteria Case Study patients with ulcerative colitis: a randomized controlled study. Dairy products have often Bifidobacteria Case Study suggested as one of the Bifidobacteria Case Study asthma triggers, but there is no scientific evidence that President Obamas Speech On Gun Control In America this theory.

Why You Need More BIFIDOBACTERIA For Your Gut - BEST BACTERIA to Improve Your Gut Health

The lactobacillus acidophilus in yogurt helps destroy yeast by producing hydrogen peroxide. To prevent yeast infections, it is recommended to eat yogurt every day. Applying it directly to the affected area can help treat the infection. According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation , the two essential nutrients for lowering your risk of having osteoporosis are vitamin D and calcium. Not enough vitamin D and calcium increase the chance of getting a bone-weakening disease. Yogurt contains a combination of vitamin D and calcium, and other essential nutrients that promote bone health, such as protein, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium. Magnesium and calcium are essential for maintaining dental and bone health, making yogurt good for people suffering from rheumatism, arthritis, and osteoporosis.

Adequate consumption of calcium also reduces the risk of osteoporosis in menopausal women. Researchers found that people who consumed probiotics regularly showed less anxiety and more control over emotions when introduced to emotional or stressful situations. Yogurt also contains over milligrams of potassium per 8 ounces serving, and this mineral is essential for nerve health and balancing fluid in the body. Being rich in good bacteria, yogurt has the ability to enhance cognitive function as well as mood. Moreover, researchers noted that eating yogurt is ideal when taking antibiotics.

Because antibiotics kill both harmful and good bacteria in the stomach, eating probiotics through yogurt would be beneficial. The fat content of yogurt is one of the reasons why its health benefits are often controversial. In fact, it has mostly saturated fat with only a small amount of monounsaturated fatty acids. It was believed that saturated fat caused heart diseases, but new studies show that this is not the case. Nevertheless, low-fat and fat-free varieties of yogurt are still in demand in the United States.

Studies show that it may even benefit heart health. Some research also reveals that consuming saturated fat from whole-milk products like yogurt increases good cholesterol, which may protect cardiovascular health. In another study , it was found that yogurt consumption reduces the overall incidence of heart disease. Asthma occurs when the airways become narrow and inflamed, making it difficult to breathe. This condition causes episodes of shortness of breath, coughing, chest tightness, and wheezing.

Dairy products have often been suggested as one of the common asthma triggers, but there is no scientific evidence that supports this theory. People with asthma can develop their immunity by helping their digestive health. Yogurt has anti-inflammatory properties that may help alleviate the symptoms of asthma. The good bacteria in it also lowers the risk of attacks in physically active suffers. It is already mentioned that yogurt contains high levels of potassium, a powerful mineral hailed by nutritionists and cardiologists as a blood pressure regulator. Potassium is believed to decrease sodium re-absorption and helps the body get rid of excess sodium. Sodium is the main culprit behind high blood pressure, leading to kidney problems and hypertension if not observed.

Potassium also encourages nervous system cell function, which is essential for preventing hypertension and improving heart health. A study from the Harvard School of Public Health found that people who eat at least three servings of yogurt per day have reduced risks of developing high blood pressure by 50 percent. If current lifestyles continue, one out of three adults in the United States will suffer from this condition by A new study published in the journal Diabetologia found that eating yogurt at least four times a week may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

As a consequence this also blocks the replication of the pORIderivative. Selection on antibiotic results in the integration of the pORIderivative into the B. This temperature-sensitive plasmid approach was also used to create insertion mutants in B. This method was applied to create an insertion mutant in the strain B. Schematic representation of insertion mutagenesis using a temperature sensitive plasmid. The targeted gene is indicated by the text apuB in the open gray box and the antibiotic resistance gene is indicated as a blue box with the letters AR.

The black arrow represents the replication gene repA and the red-cross indicates a gene that is non-functional. Step 1 illustrates the introduction of a the plasmid pTGB into B. Step 2 illustrates a shift in temperature resulting in the blocked replication of pTGB and pORIapuB as a consequence of a non-functional repA gene. Finally in Step 3 , presence of antibiotic selects for integration of pORIderivatives into the desired site on the B. A recent study has described the creation of a mutant library in B. This approach involved the construction of a tetracycline-resistant Tn5 transposon and preparation of a transposome complex that was subsequently introduced into B.

The benefit of this method is that it can be used for high-throughput screening in order to identify genes that are fundamental for a given phenotype Judson and Mekalanos, However, similarly to targeted insertion mutant systems, high transformation efficiencies are crucial for this system to be effective Ruiz et al. Conjugation can also be used by bacteria to transfer genetic material, as was first described in E. Conjugation-based techniques have been widely described for Gram-negative bacteria, though less so for Gram-positive bacteria Schroder and Lanka, Currently, transformation by electroporation is the most popular method used to genetically manipulate bifidobacteria. Shortfalls maybe overcome by the use of a conjugation-based approach as it holds a number of advantages over transformation Dominguez and O'Sullivan, Secondly, the presence of R-M systems is not an issue for conjugative methods as during conjugation DNA is transferred as a single strand from donor to recipient, in which form it is insensitive to most R-M systems Dominguez and O'Sullivan, The first, though unsuccessful, attempt at conjugative transfer in bifidobacteria was reported in Shkoporov et al.

A recent publication describes a conjugative gene transfer method and the first successful transfer of DNA between E. Based on the RP4 conjugative machinery of E. This plasmid was transformed into E. The recent sequencing of the B. Analysis of the plasmid sequence led to the identification of genes that are predicted to encode conjugative machinery. The functionality of the conjugative mechanism was demonstrated by the successful transfer of pMP from B. The recent development of conjugation-based gene transfer systems and the discovery of the first native conjugative bifidobacterial plasmid is quite significant Dominguez and O'Sullivan, ; Bottacini et al.

Insertion mutagenesis has proven to be a fundamental tool in the development of functional genomics in bifidobacteria. Two studies in particular demonstrate how the use of insertion mutagenesis can reveal how candidates genes are involved in the beneficial effects conferred to the host by bifidobacteria Fukiya et al. In the first example, Fukuda et al. Early observations highlighted that germ-free mice pre-colonized with B. Comparative genomic analysis performed between protective B. Due to the consequently lower levels of acetate produced, the mutant strain was unable to protect mice from EHEC OH7 infection, whereas when the non-protective B. The second example of a functional microbe-host interaction study is the identification of candidate genes directly responsible for the colonization of B.

Genome and in vivo transcriptome analyses of B. As well as investigating candidate genes directly involved in host-microbe interactions, insertion mutagenesis has also been exploited in functional genomic studies investigating the physiological characteristics of bifidobacteria, such as carbohydrate metabolism O'Connell Motherway et al. It is well established that bifidobacteria confer positive health benefits to their host via their metabolic activities. The availability of complete bifidobacterial genomes and corresponding comparative analysis allows for the identification of mechanisms underlying bifidobacterial metabolic activity.

Carbohydrate utilization studies and identification of metabolic pathways also provides fundamental information allowing for the identification of novel and effective prebiotic compounds. Plant-derived and host derived carbohydrates have been shown to stimulate the growth of some bifidobacterial species. To identify and obtain full knowledge of the genes implicated in carbohydrate degradation and utilization, characterization and mutagenesis of candidate genes is required. However, bifidobacteria are notoriously recalcitrant to genetic modification. It is therefore essential that future studies continue to address the shortage of effective molecular tools. The development of these tools is essential to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain how bifidobacteria interact with their human host.

All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. AO was supported by an enterprise partnership scheme of the Irish Research Council. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Microbiol v. Front Microbiol. Published online Jun Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Microbial Symbioses, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology. Received Apr 25; Accepted May The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are among the first microbes to colonize the human gastrointestinal tract and are believed to exert positive health benefits on their host. Keywords: Bifidobacterium , carbohydrate metabolism, genetic modification, probiotics, microbe-host interaction. Introduction The past 20 years has seen a research focus on those members of the gut microbiota that exhibit health-promoting or probiotic effects such as protection of the host against pathogens by competitive exclusion Bernet et al. General features of bifidobacterial genomes Since the publication of the first bifidobacterial genome in , there has been a steady increase in the number of publicly available bifidobacterial genome sequences Lee et al.

Table 1 Summary of all completely sequenced bifidobacterial genomes. Open in a separate window. Impact on health and disease A diverse microbial community has evolved to adapt and survive in the human GIT and is commonly referred to as the gut microbiota Guarner and Malagelada, Bifidobacteria and diarrhoea The use of bifidobacteria to treat various gastrointestinal disorders has also been reported. Bifidobacteria and necrotizing entercolitis A recent study reported lower incidences of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates following routine administration of B.

Bifidobacteria and inflammatory bowel disease Although, the exact mechanism of action is not understood, reduction in the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease following treatment by probiotic strains has been reported Venturi et al. Bifidobacteria and colon regularity A number of studies have reported improvements in colon regularity following ingestion of fermented milk products that contain B. Bifidobacteria and competitive exclusion Bifidobacteria have also been reported to prevent gastrointestinal infections by competitive exclusion of pathogens based on common binding sites on epithelial cells Duffy et al. Bifidobacteria and functional foods The inclusion of micro-organisms in the human diet has been on-going for thousands of years Leahy et al.

Bifidobacterial carbohydrate metabolism The human genome is predicted to encode just eight glycosyl hydrolases GHs that are directly linked to carbohydrate digestion. Figure 1. Bifidobacterial glycosyl hydrolases Carbohydrates can be modified by a range of different enzymes including hexosyl- and phosphotransferases, hydrolases and isomerizes Pokusaeva et al. Table 2 Bifidobacterial glycosyl hydrolases. Carbohydrate cross-feeding by bifidobacteria Several recent studies have investigated the impact on the gut microbiome by bifidobacterial cross-feeding of carbohydrates. Control of bifidobacterial carbohydrate metabolism Carbon catabolite repression CCR is a regulatory system present in many bacteria in which the expression or activity of proteins involved in the utilization or uptake of available carbon sources is inhibited by the presence of a preferred carbon source Postma et al.

Biotechnology of bifidobacteria Research into bifidobacterial metabolism has led to the prebiotic concept which in turn confers health benefits to the human host by stimulating the metabolism and activity of bifidobacteria in the GIT Hijova et al. Bifidobacterial mutagenesis strategies There are a small number of reports on targeted gene inactivation in bifidobacteria, although in recent years a number of techniques have been developed resulting the successful inactivation of genes in bifidobacteria. Figure 2. Table 3 Summary of bifidobacterial mutagenesis strategies.

Double-crossover and double-crossover markerless gene deletion Double-crossover gene disruption was first demonstrated in B. Homologous recombination mediated by a temperature sensitive plasmid The temperature sensitive Ts plasmid strategy has been applied successfully to various microorganisms in order to create gene knock-outs Hamilton et al. Figure 3. Transposons for mutagenesis in bifidobacteria A recent study has described the creation of a mutant library in B. Conjugation in bifidobacteria Conjugation can also be used by bacteria to transfer genetic material, as was first described in E. Microbe-host interactions Insertion mutagenesis has proven to be a fundamental tool in the development of functional genomics in bifidobacteria.

Conclusion It is well established that bifidobacteria confer positive health benefits to their host via their metabolic activities. Author contributions All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Coffee may sometimes get a bad rap, but many nutrition and sports experts recommend it. In fact, studies have shown that drinking coffee can improve athletic performance, particularly for endurance sports so you should drink it before your workouts for energy. Unfortunately coffee can often cause digestive issues. If that is the case for you consider fermented coffee, a relatively new innovation to hit health food stores thanks to brands like Afineur.

When coffee becomes a fermented food , the bitter, heartburn-causing notes, are removed thanks to a secondary fermentation process. This process, as it pertains to coffee, was pioneered by a molecular engineer, Dr. Delebecque, who says that he and his co-founder Sophie Deterre, PhD, wanted to eliminate irritants from traditional foods while also increasing the amount of vitamins and different types of protein in them meaning that coffee is just the first in a list of unique fermented foods that will be launching. Also, the sour taste in fermented foods are organic acids that help probiotics to really work their magic. Mangos have been shown to help keep the good bacteria in your gut alive; we like ours blended into a Zero Belly Smoothie. According to a recent study published in The Journal of Nutrition , incorporating a mango a day into your diet could improve your gut health, while helping reduce body fat and controlling blood sugar.

Better yet because the fruit has such a fantastic nutritional profile according to lead researcher, Edralin Lucas, mangos contain many nutrients and other bioactive compounds that can provide various health benefits aside from what was investigated. We already covered that non-dairy yogurt is a great gut health boosting option, but so is regular yogurt. Grass-fed, full-fat and plain no sugar added yogurt has a very high amount of beneficial probiotics. The types of probiotics in yogurt help to remove harmful fungus and bacteria according to Ostrower.

There are also beneficial enzymes that help improve digestion. Think of kefir—popular in Eastern Europe but growing in prominence stateside—as a tart, more liquid yogurt. What makes kefir so great for your gut is that it usually contains at least 10 live and active strains of bacteria, compared to most yogurts which usually have three. For the most benefits the salmon you're consuming must be wild, which means it is caught with a fishing pole in its natural environment and not farmed.

Participants were involved in one of three activities: singing, crafts or creative writing. Bifidobacteria Case Study weaning the Bifidobacteria Case Study of the bifidobacterial population changes toward Bifidobacteria Case Study capable of adapting Bifidobacteria Case Study the metabolism of plant-derived sugars. Possibility of preventing colorectal Bifidobacteria Case Study with probiotics. More importantly, Personal Statement: Hope For The Homeless provide acetyl-CoA used in the process of fat biosynthesis Bifidobacteria Case Study cell membrane production, guaranteeing the integrity of mucous membranes [ Bifidobacteria Case Study ]. Please Bifidobacteria Case Study our privacy Bifidobacteria Case Study. Chronic conditions Bifidobacteria Case Study asthma, arthritis, heart disease, stroke, Bifidobacteria Case Study obstructive pulmonary disease COPD Bifidobacteria Case Study, cognitive impairment, cancer other than skin, and kidney disease.