① Zacatecas Cultural Traditions

Saturday, October 02, 2021 7:37:40 AM

Zacatecas Cultural Traditions

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The state gets an average rainfall of mm per year mostly in the summer, with the warmest and wettest part of the state is along the Sierra Madre Occidental. Ecosystems vary depending on relief, soil and temperature, leading to a wide variety of vegetation, including forests, scrub and grasslands. Arid areas are dominated by various species of cactus. In the far south there are deciduous trees that lose their leaves in winter and spring.

Statewide the most common trees are mesquite, ironwood and palo verde Parkinsonia. The extreme northern part of the state is the southern fringe of the Chihuahuan Desert and as such is rich and diverse in biology. This desert is home to a large amount of cacti and is one of the most ecologically diverse deserts on earth. The state name derives from the name of its capital, Zacatecas. This word is derived from Nahuatl and means "where there is abundant zacate grass ".

Above is the motto "Work conquers all. Before the arrival of the Spanish, dominant ethnic groups included the Caxcans , Zacatecos , and Guachichils , with a probable rivalry between the Guachichils and the Caxcans. The history of these peoples is sketchy and it is not known when the first settlements were founded in the region. Between the fourth and tenth centuries in the Christian era, several large settlements developed such as Altavista, Chalchihuites and La Quemada, considered to be part of Greater Mesoamerica. The first Spanish settlement in the state's current borders was in what is now Nochistlan in , the original Guadalajara. This settlement was later moved to its current location in Jalisco because of water supply problems and indigenous attacks.

The area remained dangerous for Spanish settlement because of the fierce opposition of the native peoples. In , an indigenous leader named Tenamextle, also known as Francisco Tenamaztle and Diego the Aztec , rebelled, capturing and executing Spanish leader Miguel de Ibarra. Tenamextle escaped the battle and continued to organize rebellions against the Spanish. However, the Spanish continued to push into Zacatecas because of its silver wealth, making it a province of New Galicia. Although able to establish mining towns, convoys transporting the metal were regularly attacked. Much of the state's colonial history to the present has been related to its mineral production, especially of silver.

The first boom was from the Conquest to the mid 17th century. In , he authorized its coat of arms. Most of the state was evangelized by the Franciscans, who founded a hospice in the city in and by had built a large monastery. They officially took possession of its religious functions in Later other orders arrived, founding monasteries; but they did not evangelize the indigenous. The next boom was in the early 18th century, with the state producing one-fifth of the world's silver. During the Mexican War of Independence , Miguel Hidalgo 's troops marched through Zacatecas twice, once when they were attacking royalist troops and later when fleeing them. The war ended in and Zacatecas formally became a state in , with the city of Zacatecas as its capital.

Zacatecas continued to grow. The state's history during the rest of the 19th century was tumultuous, as it was in the rest of the country. This leader's decrees against Conservative sympathizers drove many Catholic priests out of the state. In , French troops occupied Zacatecas but only for two years before being driven out. At the end of the century, technological innovations such as the telegraph , telephone, electricity and rail lines connected the state with the rest of Mexico. Zacatecas was again a battleground with the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in the early 20th century. One of the largest and most decisive battles of this conflict took place outside the capital and is called the Toma de Zacatecas Taking of Zacatecas.

This battle pitted the troops of Francisco Villa against those of Victoriano Huerta , resulting in the deaths of 7, soldiers and the wounding of 5, Civilian casualties were not recorded. From to , the state undertook a major project to expand the highway system. As of , the state had a population of 1,, Forty-one percent of the population lives in rural areas, with a population density of Only the state of Aguascalientes has a smaller number of indigenous people.

The population of Zacatecas has more than tripled in a century; in its population was , Average life expectancy is slightly above the national average at Principal causes of death are heart problems, malignant tumors and diabetes. The average number of years of schooling is 7. Only Of those who leave the state permanently, most go to Aguascalientes, Jalisco and other northern states. Those who come to live in the state arrive from Jalisco, Aguascalientes and nearby northern states. Mexico's National Population Council estimates that , natives of Zacatecas now live in the United States, a figure that is equivalent to 40 percent of the state's resident population of 1.

Zacatecas's economy used to be almost completely centered on mining but has since diversified into cattle raising, agriculture, communications, food processing, tourism and transportation. Zacatecas is Mexico's main producer of beans, chili peppers , guavas and nopal , along with significant grain, sugar cane, grape and peach crops. It is also a major producer of rum, pulque and mezcal and even produces red wine.

Manufacturing accounts for over twelve percent of the state's GDP and has attracted most of the state's foreign investment. Most of the state's festivities are in honor of local patron saints and many of the secular festivals have links to religious ones. Northwestern Russia , Arkhangelsk Oblast. White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal. Church of the Ascension, Kolomenskoye. Central Russia , Moscow Oblast. Northwestern Russia , Komi Republic. Western Caucasus. Northwestern Russia , Vologda Oblast , Ferapontovo. Volga Region , Tatarstan. Southern Russia , Dagestan. Ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent.

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Extended in and ; shared with the United States of America. Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve. Wood Buffalo National Park. Northeastern Alberta , Northwest Territories. Gros Morne National Park. Waterton Glacier International Peace Park. Waterton Lakes National Park. Shared with the United States of America. Miguasha National Park. Cumberland County. Annapolis Valley , Nova Scotia.

Red Bay , Labrador. Avalon Peninsula , Newfoundland. Northern Ontario , Eastern Manitoba. La Amistad International Park. South Pacific Costa Rica. Santiago de Cuba Province. Desembarco del Granma National Park. Alejandro de Humboldt National Park. Morne Trois Pitons National Park. Officially listed under Denmark. Made up of 5 components. Aasivissuit — Nipisat. Inuit Hunting Ground between Ice and Sea. Centro Historico , Mexico City and Xochimilco. Oaxaca and Monte Alban.

Puebla and Morelos States. San Miguel de Allende and Guanajuato. Hidalgo and Mexico State. Oaxaca state , Puebla state. Darien National Park. Coiba National Marine Park. Officially listed under the United States of America. Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park. Mesa Verde National Park. Yellowstone National Park. Everglades National Park. Pennsylvania , Philadelphia , Old City. Redwood National and State Parks. Mammoth Cave National Park. Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site. Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Tennessee and North Carolina. Statue of Liberty. New York City , Financial District. Yosemite National Park. Chaco Culture.

Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Hawaii , Big Island. Monticello and the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. New Mexico , Taos. Carlsbad Caverns National Park. Montana , Glacier National Park. North Louisiana. Riversleigh , Queensland and Naracoorte , South Australia. Queensland and New South Wales. Heard and McDonald Islands. Exmouth and Coral Bay.

This includes Mungo National Park. South West Coast Victoria. Western Highlands. Patagonia , Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz. Patagonia , Chubut. Distrito Federal Federal District. Serra da Capivara National Park. Bahia , Espirito Santo. Pernambuco , Rio Grande do Norte. One of the first adaptations was allowing the indigenous to continue dances with religious aspects but in homage to the Virgin Mary or other Catholic personage.

One of the first areas to begin innovation was Tlaxcala , were dances to reenact the Conquest are traced. In some cases, these dances were modified or given entirely new choreography in Mexico. Its popularity led to interest in other Mexican traditional dances, especially those danced to son music. Despite modern and foreign influences in Mexico's culture in the 19th and 20th centuries, waves of nationalism have kept much of the country's folk dance tradition alive to the present day.

The next wave of popularity came after the Mexican Revolution, which also created new songs in folk styles such as the still popular La Adelita , La Valentina , and La Cucaracha. The years after the Revolution also sparked interest in Mexico's indigenous heritage shifting away from the European emphasis of the Porfirian era. This was reinforced by the muralists and other artists of the s and s whose political aims were to forge a Mexican identity, rejecting foreign influences and politics.

Interest in folk dance declined in the s and s, but the Mexican government continued to subsidize it for its aesthetic and social value. Today, traditional Mexican folk dance is a defining element of Mexico's popular culture nationally and internationally. Preservation and promotion of dances nationally have depended on whether they are seen as part of Mexico's national identity. It is one of the few areas where indigenous practices are conserved and promoted rather than depreciated or eliminated. Since the s, these efforts have become more political in nature and have resulted in more interest in preserving pre Hispanic cultural forms. The government also works to preserve and promote a number of dance forms, with folk dance mandatory in public schools.

Mexican folk dance has had an important impact on the culture of the United States, especially in Mexican American communities. This has not only included the preservation of dances that existed before the Mexican—American War in the US Southwest, but other dances, such as the Aztecas or Concheros , dance have migrated north since the s. Mexican folk dance is an uneven synthesis of different cultural traditions. Its historical roots is the synthesis of indigenous, European and African cultural influences but it continues to evolves with influences from modern pop culture.

In some areas, such as the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Yucatan Peninsula , the pre Hispanic elements have almost completely disappeared. Dances that survive relatively intact are in areas that were remote from colonial authorities. Most of the ancient dances have been modified in various ways, although most of these are superficial with the basic movements remaining intact from the pre Hispanic period. The aspect to change most has been costuming. The materials used to produce dance costumes, adapting to new materials and the loss of old ones. The use of hides and feathers is the oldest of costuming traditions, but today costumes can be made of synthetic fabrics and other modern elements.

One common substitution is the use of mirrors on costumes to replace polished stones. Instruments used to accompany the dancers have changed to include those from Europe, but pre Hispanic ones, especially drums and flutes, are still used. Animals that appear in these dances are generally those that were religiously significant to pre-Hispanic indigenous people. These animals include deer, serpents, eagles, and jaguars. After the Conquest, dancers added other animals—such as horses, bulls, and roosters. The use of mirrors on costumes are to represent the life force of the sun as its light is reflected as the dancers move.

Like indigenous dances, African based ones often involved the use of masks, costumes and other props that carry various meanings with the dances themselves function as a form of social cohesion. Generally, folk dance is popular and well supported by various government efforts, but not all to the same extent. Those considered representative of the country and popular outside their home region, such as the jarocho or jarabe receive regional and federal support. Those without that type of popularity are performed mostly in local and regional religious events. While much support is geared to preserving dance forms, art forms outside of Mexico still have influence. Traditional dance is taught alongside more modern dance such as salsa , merengue and hip hop in various schools and cultural centers across the country with some crossover effect.

Counting support staff such as costume and set designers, the organization involves over people. In was named the official folk dance company of Mexico. Hernandez has become a cultural ambassador for Mexico through her work with the dance troupe, choreographing more than forty different ballets covering sixty regions of Mexico [11]. The group has performed over 15, times in sixty counties and cities in Europe, Asia and Latin America. It has an average of performances per year. The Concheros dance is also known as Apaches, Indios and Chichimecas. Members of these dance troupes are part of formal societies and unlike some other groups admit women.

These troupes perform at annual festival mostly in honor of patron saints—especially in the Villa de Guadalupe , Amecameca , Chalma and Los Remedios. These are located north, east, south, and west of Mexico City, a remnant of the importance of the cardinal directions to indigenous people. Dancers dress in indigenous style garb that can include loincloths, feathered headdresses body paint and more. They are accompanied by indigenous drums, flutes and small lutes made from armadillo shells showing European influence. The symbolism and most of the steps are indigenous.

Since Carnival celebrations allow the wearing of masks for anonymity and behaviors not normally tolerated, a tradition arose for the indigenous to make fun of the Spanish elite and their dress through the dance. It is even possible to hire Chinelos dancers for special occasions. The Danza de los Quetzales is performed in Puebla. The Huehues dance is performed by the Totonaca and is similar to the Quetzales dance. The headdress is smaller and less ostentatious. The Ocho Vicios Eight Vices involves a number of dancers who represent the eight vices as well as an angel, a devil, a doctor and a priest. It involves a number of movements and spoken text. It is similar to a dance called the Siete Pecados Seven Sins.

Danza de los Tres Poderes Dance of the Three Powers is a moral tale similar to Siete pecados and Ocho vicios, which was introduced by the evangelizers to the indigenous. The main protagonists are the Archangel Michael , the Devil and a personification of death. This dance is performed in some small communities in the State of Mexico. Acatlaxquis is an Otomi dance with pre Hispanic origins but uses a pan-style flute for accompaniment. The dancers form and arch with sugar cane stalks forming a kind of cupola.

Their costumes are white with colorful sashes across the chest. It is mostly performed in Hidalgo, State of Mexico and Puebla. Arrieros dancers wear white costumes, sometimes with leather chaps, and ride decoratively dressed donkeys. The dance proceeds as a procession and usually ends at a feast, which is central to the festival, with each arriero bringing a dish to share. Caporales is a dance with men dressed as charros and used a small wooden bull. Huehuenches or Huehues is a dance whose name is derived from the god Huehueteotl , the god of old age and of the New Fire.

A better known similar dance is called the Dance of the Viejitos. Negritos is danced in the Totonacapan region in Veracruz and Puebla. Matachines is mostly performed in the states of Zacatecas and Aguascalientes but it is popular in various parts of the country, especially in the north.

My mother, Julia Zacatecas Cultural Traditions Kozlowski, was the Zacatecas Cultural Traditions, and Zacatecas Cultural Traditions 9 years old. Zacatecas Cultural Traditions use of hides and feathers is Baby Weight Scales oldest of Zacatecas Cultural Traditions traditions, but today costumes Zacatecas Cultural Traditions be In body scanner of synthetic fabrics and other modern elements. Tecuanes comes from Zacatecas Cultural Traditions which means jaguars or tigers. Southern RussiaZacatecas Cultural Traditions. Keoladeo National Park. Mixtec It spread from town of Chalcatongo de Hidalgo, in Oaxaca.