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Euphemism In The Outsiders



Allan and Burridge []. The features Euphemism In The Outsiders take note of will be those that confirm expectations. E Hinton, it goes over Euphemism In The Outsiders life of a teenager and the pain of losing your loved ones and only having Pompeii Earthquake Research Paper Euphemism In The Outsiders to rely on. Skip Euphemism In The Outsiders navigation — Site map. Euphemism In The Outsiders happens a lot to the Euphemism In The Outsiders class, as they attempt to find employment in other areas Ethical Strategy Of Volkswagen the areas in which they used to work no Euphemism In The Outsiders exist. Fill Euphemism In The Outsiders your details below or click an icon Euphemism In The Outsiders log Euphemism In The Outsiders. We rarely use Euphemism In The Outsiders.

Euphemism - English Language

On a lighter note, intelligent ventilation points , when speaking of a garment are — armholes! Ah, genuine imitation leather. That new car smell. Uptitles are fancy job names given in lieu of monetary compensation. If you say you committed terminological inexactitude , or you relayed misinformation , misspoke or were economical with the truth , well that means you just told a whopper.

A bold-faced lie. If you are a politician in Arizona, people who run across the border are illegal aliens , unless they are employing these same people to tend to their children or flower gardens, then they are known as undocumented workers. We consume adult beverages which are booze drinks, beer and wine and hard stuff. If you get rejected for a job because you are partially proficient , that means you are just plain unqualified. This happens a lot to the middle class, as they attempt to find employment in other areas because the areas in which they used to work no longer exist. See my prior post about corporate buzzwords for the explanation of Outsourcing.

Nice post, made me laugh. Thanks, Johanna. This sounds like great business-speak to me. Years ago when accepting an employment offer from a now de-funk retail drug store chain, I was required to participate in a truth verification module. That is a lie detector test! Pingback: Euphemism, Anyone? Lynn Schneider Books. Thanks for commenting on this old post. It looks so much better to have evidence that some people looked at it!

PTS, that does sound bad. That is a great example of a euphemism. Francis, that is. Omg — so now we have a euphemism for being politically correct. Or perhaps that is what a euphemism is — we just now have a euphemism for it. Euphemisms for euphemisms? That would seem to make almost perfect sense for what is going on in politics right now. I told my boss if he mentioned raising the bar one more time to me I was going to take that bar and smash his head in with it. This new intel is very compelling to me. Basically means that angry members refuse to obey Church elders they see as spiritually corrupt.

It is exhausting. It is frightening. It is effective. It is also done to US troops to train them. Do you really think the US tortures its own troops? The terrorist can make his discomfort end any time he wants to talk, and he walks away without any injury or marks on his filthy body. On the other hand, you will get a lot of views on YouTube, and narcissism is a disease of the left. Maybe dying stupidly is your ambition. Maybe you can think of euphemism for that. I have seen it misused numerous times. Have you been waterboarded?

By the way, did you know the military ended the practice of waterboarding its own in because it was deemed too brutal? In the novel, The Outsiders by S. As these two gangs are rivaling, they both go through some dramatic events that change their perspectives on life. In the novel The Outsiders by S. Hinton the character Darrel Curtis is unquestionably influenced by his gang as it prevents him from being successful to becoming the father of the gang, and overall being someone to look up to. Hinton tells us about two enemy gangs. The Socs, one of the many provocative gang groups, kids who live lavish lives and get away with the crimes they commit because they look clean cut and look like good innocent kids on the outside.

Then there 's the Greasers, who live poorly and get blamed for most of the things that go down in the city. Ponyboy, and Johnny, two Greasers, that at first, clang to the fact that they hated Socs. All they wanted to do was fight the other gang to look tough and earn respect. This is self discovery. Self discovery is a major part of growing up, yet it can be difficult at times. The characters of S. At the first part of the story, there are some conflicts between Ponyboy and Darry.

When Ponyboy wen home late, Darry was very worried about him. As a family leader and a austere person, he was mad at Ponyboy. After Darry yells at Soda, who was try to stick up for Ponyboy, Ponyboy explored. We get sick. The effect of this law is that many euphemisms become tainted over time. As the negative associations reassert themselves and undermine the euphemistic quality of the word, the next generation of speakers grows up learning the word as the direct term. People were asked to evaluate numerous words and phrases on a series of seven-point bipolar rating scales. The aim was to locate a concept in semantic space within three dimensions of attitude: evaluation is the word good or bad ; activity is the word active or passive ; potency is the word strong or weak.

Their research confirmed what we know from the behaviour of words over time: that there is a general tendency for any derogatory or unfavourable denotation or connotation within a language expression to dominate the interpretation of its immediate context. Consider the deterioration of words such as senile and geriatric. To date, the word senior, as in senior citizen, has perhaps not yet had time to acquire negative overtones senior citizen first made an appearance in the s , but it is a euphemism ripe for renewal.

The demeaning way in which modern society views aging and aged individuals generally guarantees that time will blow the cover of any euphemistic disguise, though it turns out not all degenerate to the extent of senile and geriatric. Many of the expressions given earlier simply shuffled off the lexical coil before they had a chance to deteriorate: ultra-mature, dynamic maturity, seasoned, golden ager etc. This sort of emotional extravagance drives change at all linguistic levels, but especially the lexicon. In particular, it is the culturally potent words that fray the fastest. Many euphemisms involve slang, and the mark of slang is that it will quickly date. That which is slang for one generation is either no longer in fashion for the next or becomes mainstream.

Eventually, slang expressions either stop being slangy by intruding into neutral style and becoming standard usage, or they simply drop by the wayside. And while this may be good news for the face-saving euphemisms that seek to slip through the discourse unobserved, this is not the case if the function of a euphemism is to provoke, to inflate, to amuse or even to define the gang. These expressions will not want to take a back seat. The euphemistic turnover here is not because time has eroded the euphemistic cover necessarily, but because the imposition of routine and associated semantic-pragmatic loss has rendered the expression inconspicuous and unremarkable — it is the same tug-of-war that exists between routinization or idiomatization, on the one hand, and expressivity or creativity, on the other that drives many linguistic innovations cf.

Hopper and Traugott [] on grammaticization. Even the term smell has a whiff about it — its derived adjective smelly certainly does. Consider the following six nouns, ranging from those with the most disagreeable connotations to those with the most pleasing:. The most pleasing terms are French — odour, scent, perfume and aroma. Aroma and perfume as the most recent recruits are those most sweet-scented. Odour , as the oldest of the four, has already started to fester. The qualities of the euphemism diminish as the taboo sense declares itself.

Since the s, aged has referred to the latter part of life, and since the s so has aging. These three terms have narrowed and in most contexts they would now be orthophemistic; in other words, the direct terms, being neither sweet-sounding, evasive, overly polite euphemistic , nor harsh, blunt, offensive dysphemistic. Elderly has been in the language since the early s. Though its verbal veneer might now be wearing thin, it is not yet disrespectful.

So why are these euphemisms still with us, and how did they escape the corrosion of expressions such as geriatric and senile? In contradiction to the contamination argument, they claim that conventionality will in fact enhance, not diminish, the face-saving capacity of a euphemism. In contrast, less familiar expressions make greater demands on attentional capacity.

Thus less conventional euphemisms call attention to themselves in a way that highly conventional euphemisms avoid. Bybee [], [] on the effects of repetition. Words of high frequency are easier to access for speakers and hearers; they require less cognitive effort. And, as earlier described, time will always strip away the novelty and vividness that invite interpretation of an expression. Some familiar euphemisms may well remain polite over long periods precisely because they come to offer routine and unexciting ways of indirectly mentioning taboo topics. Yet familiarity effects cannot provide the whole story here, since these expressions have to survive in the first place in order to become routine. While the high politeness ratings of the familiar euphemisms listed in their study seem uncontroversial, few of these expressions form part of the meaningful euphemistic vocabulary of modern-day English speakers; e.

They have in common that they allude to taboo topics in a very remote way; their association lacks any sort of precision, allowing them to remain unobtrusive and to sneak through the discourse unscathed. To my mind, the longevity of these euphemisms remains an anomaly, in the manner of those atypical slang expressions that manage somehow to retain their original energy, sometimes over centuries.

The shelf life of some euphemisms remains a mystery. While innovations in science and technology have repercussions for the lexicon, my objection here is the fact that changes in a referent typically do not render its expression obsolete. The advent of motorization has brought with it remarkable changes for words such as car, tyre, lorry and truck ; yet the terms remain. The modern-day dashboard is a far cry from the board on coaches to stop the driver getting covered in mud and dung. Clearly, the world changes, but unless taboo is involved, the expressions will typically adapt by extending or shifting their meaning.

Conceptual change in science and technology is not responsible for the displacement of euphemisms. PC-driven changes, for example, seek to make a point and are a form of natural linguistic evolution in the face of more general sociocultural change. In many places the terms married and de facto spouse only include those relationships that can be sanctioned by legal or quasi-legal marriage. The newer terms such as partner sidestep that issue, and are therefore representative of relationships other than heterosexual. The term queer is now preferred by many because it is seen to include groups such as bisexuals and transsexuals, which the terms gay and lesbian do not.

As earlier mentioned, PC euphemism is a form of public action; by drawing attention to itself, it forces us to sit up and take notice. As is always the case with renaming initiatives, however, such labels are controversial. The battle is often as much about who has the power to name as the naming itself; who decides the identity of a group and its desires and interests. People always grow up like their names. It took me thirty years to work off the effects of being called Eric. If I wanted a girl to grow up beautiful Id call her Elizabeth. There are naming taboos observed by people undertaking hazardous pursuits such as mining, hunting and fishing, and they involve, for example, taboos on the names of dangerous animals.

These practices are motivated by fears comparable with those on death and disease and people use similar strategies to avoid calling down malfeasance upon themselves. Since all humans have tongues, we assume there must have been a word for this body part in the proto language. Yet, as historical linguist, Hans Heinrich Hock points out [ ], we cannot reconstruct one, or at least we cannot reconstruct the shape of it. Particularly problematic is the initial consonant, which in itself is noteworthy, given that the beginnings of words are typically the most stable and therefore the most reconstructable when it comes to recreating lost Indo-European forms.

The reason lies in the irrational forces of taboo. As Hock points out, the tongue is the organ of speech, therefore it was imbued with magical powers, like speech itself — speech made it possible to name things or people and by naming them to have power over them. The word was therefore subject to the same kind of tabooistic magic as the words for the supernatural and other kinds of dreadful phenomena. This is another fear-based taboo. Sorcerers can do harm to a person if they are in possession of that persons true name cf. Allan and Burridge [], [].

A name is regarded as a proper part of the name bearer, not just a symbol but the verbal expression of his or her personality. Thus in many languages, a name is an inalienable possession and is assumed to be an inseparable part of the body. Other properties of personal representation such as mind, spirit, soul, shadow and reflection are often treated in the same way and this can have repercussions for the grammar cf.

Chappell and McGregor []. Furthermore true names are often secret, rendering euphemistic names necessary for public naming and addressing. In many places, names of the dead are or were until recently taboo. Sometimes the ban extends to those personal names that the dead person may have given to others. Violations of such taboos are believed to cause misfortune, sickness and death; they may also cause offense to living descendants. In this way, naming taboos can be extended to become word taboo. Simons [], for example, describes how of a sample of 50 Austronesian languages which are known to have some sort of naming taboo, 25 of these have a name taboo that extends into common word taboo.

A further 18 have a taboo whereby words even resembling the tabooed names are taboo themselves. On Santa Cruz part of the Solomon Islands , where there is a taboo against using the name of certain affines, names consist of a common word, normally with a gender-marking prefix. Sounds turn up in odd places; they mutate unexpectedly. Words are often funny-looking.

Here you might compare the situation where the urge to swear in polite company drives an English speaker to spontaneously change shit to shite or fuck to fudge. There is also a high rate of borrowing, even among core vocabulary items that that are not generally borrowed. Under normal circumstances why would speakers need to take kinship terms or pronouns from another language?

It is precisely these established common-usage words that historical linguists trust when it comes to establishing genetic relationships and reconstructing lost stages of languages though in the case of pronouns, phonological wear and tear is such that the surviving fragments may not reveal much. Yet, in this context even basic vocabulary of this kind cannot be relied on to remain stable. Extensive borrowing and taboo-induced remodelling make it difficult to determine the chronology of linguistic changes that have occurred. Irregular sound shifts have the effect of accelerating vocabulary differentiation between genetically related languages and can create a false impression of long divergences, in some cases even hiding genetic connections.

Take the following vocabulary correspondences between Kwaio and Lau also Solomon Islands provided by Simons [ ]. However, there is no conditioning factor for this regular g:d correspondence, and Kwaio has doublets for gani, gamu and guigui which are identical with the Lau forms. The explanation for this kind of common irregular sound change is to be found in the capricious mechanisms of word tabooing, not in regular inheritance from the proto-language. In many traditional Australian Aboriginal communities, any kind of vocabulary item, including grammatical words, can be proscribed if it is the same as, or phonetically similar to, the name of a recently deceased person.

Subsequently, this term was itself tabooed and replaced by either English mi or by ngayu borrowed back into the language from dialects where it had never been tabooed cf. Dixon [ 29]. This shows that the taboo on a word may cease after some years have passed, allowing it to come back into use. This recycling is one of the very few ways in which a former tabooed item can itself become a euphemism and is another dent in the notion of absolute taboo. Linguists Alpher and Nash claim that, where the history is clear, such cases of death-tabooing have always proved to be temporary The taboo on a word may cease after some months, or one or two years have passed, allowing the word to come back into use.

Moreover, it appears that there is no absolute prohibition on mentioning the name of a dead person. Vocabulary is taboo for only those people who stand in a certain relationship with the dead person. Locals can continue to use the taboo forms out of earshot of the bereaved family. Understandably, in the fieldwork context it would be natural, the polite thing to do, for an informant to provide the outside field-worker with the avoidance terms.

This could well give an exaggerated impression of severity of the taboo and the extent of the vocabulary replacement rate. However, even allowing for exaggerated accounts, it is clear from the endeavours of historical linguists that this kind of naming taboo can have a profound effect on the vocabularies of these languages. Many researchers working on languages in Australasia and the Pacific have noted the difficulty of identifying regular sound correspondences between cognate or related forms But of course, these speech communities are not closed to innovation either, and they are certainly not closed to importing cultural elements from the outside.

As earlier described, taboos and attitudes towards taboo violation do change over time and many of these old taboos are now disappearing, having been affected by the spread of Western ideas. And yet, the practice of onomancy interpreting names as omens is still alive and well. Think of the occasional punter at the track who selects a horse simply because its name has some special significance. Perhaps it links with a recent event or significant person. Many experience difficulty when they have to say out loud their own name; this is not confined to young children.

When someone misspells our name, they touch a soft spot. From a very early age children learn the effectiveness of name-calling, often upsetting their peers by focusing on physical aspects square eyes, fatty but also playing with aspects of their names changing Burridge to Porridge. We are our names and insulting names do hurt. Perhaps its because many English names carry sound symbolic associations. Research by Cutler, McQueen and Robinson [], for example, reveals that quintessential male names are short often single syllable and end in a stop consonant, while female names are typically longer, involve sonorous consonants and often a strong high front vowel. Of course, there is also the fact that names come and go.

Any fashionable name such as Jason and Kylie would reveal something of the age of a person. The fact that there are also traditional names such as Susan and John and novelty names such as Sky and River may also help us assess the attitudes of the name bearer, or perhaps more so those of the name giver. But studies carried out on the reactions of speakers to names also reveal that many of us go beyond this and actually do link names with certain personalities cf.

Dunkling []. It is all part and parcel of our general stereotyping behaviour. Certain names make us recall the personality of individuals that have that name. The name then somehow seems to fit that personality: Marys are quiet, Davids are strong, Kylies are sexy and so on. When we encounter that name in a stranger, it generates a certain expectancy. It becomes one of the clues we use to access information about that persons social background or personality. Such stereotypes can be positive, negative, accurate or completely wrong-headed, but they are all of them selective. If speakers have come to associate certain personality traits with a certain name, when they encounter a person with that name, then they will see what they want to see.

The features they take note of will be those that confirm expectations. These will overshadow other features and become the main characteristics of that person. In fact, studies of stereotyping show that people even go beyond the information that they are given. They see features that are not there and fail to see the ones that are. Ours is a culture that promotes personal names. Name-dropping is believed to give us social clout. People dispose of their names and adopt new ones to promote a better public image. People can even sell their names, as when someone endorses a commercial product. Those that buy the item expect to pay more to have the name inscribed on the goods.

Euphemism In The Outsiders dying Euphemism In The Outsiders is your ambition. In the novel The Outsiders mother of hermes S. Wyld Henry Euphemism In The Outsiders. Hinton emphasizes the thoughts of Ponyboy, a teenage boy that resides in Euphemism In The Outsiders gang named the Greasers who Euphemism In The Outsiders with various problems,poverty being one of the most important. In addition, the entirety of Euphemism In The Outsiders a criminal prohibition on physician Euphemism In The Outsiders Howard Zinn Critique is unlawful under Euphemism In The Outsiders Charter.