🔥🔥🔥 The Pros And Cons Of The Rohingya

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The Pros And Cons Of The Rohingya

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Understanding the Rohingya Crisis: A View From Bangladesh

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The rough terrain and narrow roads slowed down traffic, and the high altitude, which affected the ability of aircraft to carry loads, made control of NH 1 the actual stretch of the highway which was under Pakistani fire a priority for India. The infiltrators, apart from being equipped with small arms and grenade launchers , were also armed with mortars , artillery and anti-aircraft guns. The majority of posts along the LOC were adjacent to the highway, and therefore the recapture of nearly every infiltrated post increased both the territorial gains and the security of the highway. The protection of this route and the recapture of the forward posts were thus ongoing objectives throughout the war. The Indian Army's first priority was to recapture peaks that were in the immediate vicinity of NH 1.

Some of the peaks that were of vital strategic importance to the Pakistani defensive troops were Point and Point While was the nearest point that had a view of NH 1, point was the highest feature in the Dras sector, allowing the Pakistani troops to observe NH 1. The Battle of Tololing , amongst other assaults, slowly tilted the combat in India's favour. The Pakistani troops at Tololing were aided by Pakistani fighters from Kashmir.

Some of the posts put up a stiff resistance, including Tiger Hill Point that fell only later in the war. Indian troops found well-entrenched Pakistani soldiers at Tiger Hill, and both sides suffered heavy casualties. After a final assault on the peak in which ten Pakistani soldiers and five Indian soldiers were killed, Tiger Hill finally fell. A few of the assaults occurred atop hitherto unheard of peaks—most of them unnamed with only Point numbers to differentiate them—which witnessed fierce hand to hand combat.

As the operation was fully underway, about artillery guns were brought in to clear the infiltrators in the posts that were in the line-of-sight. The Bofors FHB field howitzer played a vital role, with Indian gunners making maximum use of the terrain. However, its success was limited elsewhere due to the lack of space and depth to deploy it. The Indian Air Force was tasked to act jointly with ground troops on 25 May. Nachiketa , which it attributed to an engine failure , and a MiG fighter piloted by Sqn Ldr Ajay Ahuja which was shot down by the Pakistani army, both over Batalik sector. French made Mirage H of the IAF were tasked to drop laser-guided bombs to destroy well-entrenched positions of the Pakistani forces [21] and flew its first sortie on 30 May.

In many vital points, neither artillery nor air power could dislodge the outposts manned by the Pakistani soldiers, who were out of visible range. The Indian Army mounted some direct frontal ground assaults which were slow and took a heavy toll given the steep ascent that had to be made on peaks as high as 5, metres 18, ft. Since any daylight attack would be suicidal, all the advances had to be made under the cover of darkness, escalating the risk of freezing. Based on military tactics , much of the costly frontal assaults by the Indians could have been avoided if the Indian Military had chosen to blockade the supply route of the opposing force, creating a siege.

Such a move would have involved the Indian troops crossing the LOC as well as initiating aerial attacks on Pakistani soil, however, a manoeuvre India was not willing to exercise due to the likely expansion of the theatre of war and reduced international support for its cause. Following the outbreak of armed fighting, Pakistan sought American help in de-escalating the conflict. Bruce Riedel , who was then an aide to President Bill Clinton , reported that US intelligence had imaged Pakistani movements of nuclear weapons to forward deployments for fear of the Kargil hostilities escalating into a wider conflict.

In addition, the United Jihad Council an umbrella for extremist groups rejected Pakistan's plan for a climb-down, instead deciding to fight on. The Indian army launched its final attacks in the last week of July in co-ordination with relentless attacks by the IAF, both by day and night, in their totally successful Operation Safed Sagar ; as soon as the Drass subsector had been cleared of Pakistani forces, the fighting ceased on 26 July. In the wake of its successive military defeats in Kargil, diplomatic isolation in the international arena, its precarious economic situation, and the mounting international pressure, the Pakistani establishment was compelled to negotiate a face saving withdrawal from the residual areas on the Indian side of the LoC, thereby restoring the sanctity of the LOC, as was established in July as per the Simla Agreement.

Pakistan was heavily criticised by other countries for instigating the war, as its paramilitary forces and insurgents had crossed the LOC Line of Control. Moreover, while the army had initially denied the involvement of its troops in the intrusion, two soldiers were awarded the Nishan-E-Haider Pakistan's highest military honour. Another 90 soldiers were also given gallantry awards, most of them posthumously , confirming Pakistan's role in the episode. India also released taped phone conversations between the Army Chief and a senior Pakistani general where the latter is recorded saying: "the scruff of [the militants] necks is in our hands", [] although Pakistan dismissed it as a "total fabrication". Concurrently, Pakistan made several contradicting statements, confirming its role in Kargil, when it defended the incursions saying that the LOC itself was disputed.

Clinton rebuked Sharif, however, and asked him to use his contacts to rein in the militants and withdraw Pakistani soldiers from Indian territory. Clinton would later reveal in his autobiography that "Sharif's moves were perplexing" since the Indian Prime Minister had travelled to Lahore to promote bilateral talks aimed at resolving the Kashmir problem and "by crossing the Line of Control, Pakistan had wrecked the [bilateral] talks".

Faced with growing international pressure, Sharif managed to pull back the remaining soldiers from Indian territory. The joint statement issued by Clinton and Sharif conveyed the need to respect the LOC and resume bilateral talks as the best forum to resolve all disputes. A number of Indian soldiers earned awards for gallantry. Two Pakistani soldiers received the Nishan-e-Haider , Pakistan's highest military gallantry award: []. The Kargil War was significant for the impact and influence of the mass media on public opinion in both nations.

Coming at a time of exploding growth in electronic journalism in India, the Kargil news stories and war footage were often telecast live on TV, and many websites provided in-depth analysis of the war. The conflict soon turned into a news propaganda war, in which press briefings given by government officials of each nation produced conflicting claims and counterclaims. The Indian government placed a temporary News Embargo on information from Pakistan, banning the telecast of the state-run Pakistani channel PTV [] and blocking access to online editions of the Dawn newspaper.

The Indian government ran advertisements in foreign publications including The Times and The Washington Post detailing Pakistan's role in supporting extremists in Kashmir in an attempt to garner political support for its position. As the war progressed, media coverage of the conflict was more intense in India than in Pakistan. At a seminar in Karachi , Pakistani journalists agreed that while the Indian government had taken the press and the people into its confidence, Pakistan had not. The print media in India and abroad was largely sympathetic to the Indian cause, with editorials in newspapers based in the west and other neutral countries observing that Pakistan was largely responsible for the conflict.

Some analysts believe that Indian media, which was both larger in number and more credible, may have acted as a force multiplier for the Indian military operation in Kargil and served as a morale booster. This helped India gain valuable diplomatic recognition for its position. Since Pakistan and India each had weapons of mass destruction , many in the international community were concerned that if the Kargil conflict intensified, it could lead to nuclear war.

Both countries had tested their nuclear capability in India conducted its first test in while it was Pakistan's first-ever nuclear test. Many pundits believed the tests to be an indication of the escalating stakes in the scenario in South Asia. When the Kargil conflict started just a year after the nuclear tests, many nations desired to end it before it intensified. International concerns increased when Pakistani foreign secretary Shamshad Ahmad made a statement on 31 May warning that an escalation of the limited conflict could lead Pakistan to use "any weapon" in its arsenal. Some experts believe that following nuclear tests in , the Pakistani military was emboldened by its nuclear deterrent to markedly increase coercion against India.

The nature of the India-Pakistan conflict took a more sinister turn when the United States received intelligence that Pakistani nuclear warheads were being moved towards the border. Bill Clinton tried to dissuade Pakistan prime minister Nawaz Sharif from nuclear brinkmanship , even threatening Pakistan of dire consequences. According to a White House official, Sharif seemed to be genuinely surprised by this supposed missile movement and responded that India was probably planning the same. In an article published in a defence journal in , Sanjay Badri-Maharaj, a security expert, claimed while quoting another expert that India too had readied at least five nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles.

Sensing a deteriorating military scenario, diplomatic isolation, and the risks of a larger conventional and nuclear war, Sharif ordered the Pakistani army to vacate the Kargil heights. He later claimed in his official biography that General Pervez Musharraf had moved nuclear warheads without informing him. The threat of WMD included chemical and even biological weapons. Pakistan accused India of using chemical weapons and incendiary weapons such as napalm against the Kashmiri fighters. India, on the other hand, showcased a cache of gas masks as proof that Pakistan may have been prepared to use non-conventional weapons.

US official and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons determined that Pakistani allegations of India using banned chemicals in its bombs were unfounded. The next Indian national budget included major increases in military spending. There was a surge in patriotism, with many celebrities expressing their support for the Kargil cause. The war had produced higher than expected fatalities for the Indian military, with a sizeable percentage of them including newly commissioned officers. One month after conclusion of the Kargil War, the Atlantique Incident , in which a Pakistan Navy plane was shot down by India, briefly reignited fears of a conflict between the two countries.

After the war, the Indian government severed ties with Pakistan and increased defence preparedness. India increased its defence budget as it sought to acquire more state of the art equipment. An internal assessment report by the armed forces, published in an Indian magazine, showed several other failings, including "a sense of complacency" and being "unprepared for a conventional war " on the presumption that nuclearism would sustain peace.

It also highlighted the lapses in command and control , the insufficient troop levels and the dearth of large- calibre guns like the Bofors. Tipnis, alleged that the Indian Army did not fully inform the government about the intrusions, adding that the army chief Ved Prakash Malik, was initially reluctant to use the full strike capability of the Indian Air Force, instead requesting only helicopter gunship support. It was re-elected to power in September—October with a majority of seats out of in the Lok Sabha. On the diplomatic front, Indo-US relations improved, as the United States appreciated Indian attempts to restrict the conflict to a limited geographic area.

Soon after the war the Atal Bihari Vajpayee government set up an inquiry into its causes and to analyse perceived Indian intelligence failures. The high-powered committee was chaired by eminent strategic affairs analyst K. Subrahmanyam and given powers to interview anyone with current or past associations with Indian security, including former Prime Ministers. The committee's final report also referred to as the "Subrahmanyam Report" [] led to a large-scale restructuring of Indian Intelligence.

Many press reports questioned or contradicted this finding and claimed that Singh had in fact issued early warnings that were ignored by senior Indian Army commanders and, ultimately, higher government functionaries. In a departure from the norm the final report was published and made publicly available. Subrahmanyam later wrote that the annexures contained information on the development of India's nuclear weapons program and the roles played by Prime Ministers Rajiv Gandhi , P. Narasimha Rao and V. Shortly after declaring itself a nuclear weapons state, Pakistan had been humiliated diplomatically and militarily. Many in Pakistan had expected a victory over the Indian military based on Pakistani official reports on the war, [] but were dismayed by the turn of events and questioned the eventual retreat.

In a national security meeting with Prime minister Nawaz Sharif at the Joint Headquarters , General Musharraf became heavily involved with serious altercations with Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Fasih Bokhari who ultimately called for a court-martial against General Musharraf. Benazir Bhutto , an opposition leader in the parliament and former prime minister, called the Kargil War "Pakistan's greatest blunder". Despite calls by many, [ who? The Pakistan Muslim League PML N published a white paper in , which stated that Nawaz Sharif constituted an inquiry committee that recommended a court martial for General Pervez Musharraf, but Musharraf "stole the report" after toppling the government, to save himself.

Though the Kargil conflict had brought the Kashmir dispute into international focus, which was one of Pakistan's aims, it had done so in negative circumstances that eroded its credibility, since the infiltration came just after a peace process between the two countries had been concluded. The sanctity of the LOC too received international recognition. President Clinton's move to ask Islamabad to withdraw hundreds of armed militants from Indian-administered Kashmir was viewed by many in Pakistan as indicative of a clear shift in US policy against Pakistan.

After the war, a few changes were made to the Pakistan armed forces. In recognition of the Northern Light Infantry's performance in the war, which even drew praise from a retired Indian Lt. General, the regiment was incorporated into the regular army. One US Intelligence study is reported to have stated that Kargil was yet another example of Pakistan's lack of grand strategy , repeating the follies of the previous wars.

Pakistan army losses have been difficult to determine. Pakistan confirmed that soldiers were killed. The US Department of State had made an early, partial estimate of close to fatalities. According to numbers stated by Nawaz Sharif there were over 4, fatalities. His PML N party in its "white paper" on the war mentioned that more than 3, Mujahideens, officers and soldiers were killed. The memorial, located about 5 km from the city centre across the Tiger Hill, commemorates the martyrs of the Kargil War. A poem "Pushp Kii Abhilasha" [] Wish of a Flower by Makhanlal Chaturvedi , a renowned 20th century neo-romantic Hindi poet, is inscribed on the gateway of the memorial greets visitors.

The names of the soldiers who lost their lives in the War are inscribed on the Memorial Wall and can be read by visitors. A museum attached to the Kargil War Memorial, which was established to celebrate the victory of Operation Vijay, houses pictures of Indian soldiers, archives of important war documents and recordings, Pakistani war equipments and gear, and official emblems of the Army from the Kargil war. A giant national flag, weighing 15 kg was hoisted at the Kargil war memorial on Kargil Vijay Diwas to commemorate the 13th anniversary of India's victory in the war.

The brief conflict provided considerable dramatic material for filmmakers and authors in India. Some documentaries which were shot on the subject were used by the ruling party coalition, led by Bharatiya Janata Party BJP , in furthering its election campaign that immediately followed the war. The following is a list of the major films and dramas on the subject. The impact of the war in the sporting arena was visible during the India-Pakistan clash in the Cricket World Cup , which coincided with the Kargil timeline. The game witnessed heightened passions and was one of the most viewed matches in the tournament. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Indian operation, see Annexation of Goa. Kargil War. Indo-Pakistani conflicts. Further information: Kargil order of battle.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Kargil Review Committee. Main article: Dras War Memorial. Press Information Bureau , Government of India. Retrieved 23 May Parliament of India Website. Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 20 May Indian Army. Archived from the original on 22 December

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