⌚ Brief Summary Of The Documentary My Flesh And Blood
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Weinfeld believes that similar terminology and wording can connect the Abrahamic and Davidic covenants with ancient Near Eastern grants, as opposed to being largely similar to the Mosaic covenant, which, according to Weinfeld, is an example of a suzerainty treaty. He goes on to argue that phrases about having a "whole heart" or having "walked after me [God] with all his heart" strongly parallels with Neo-Assyrian grant language, such as "walked with royalty".
He further argues that in Jeremiah, God uses prophetic metaphor to say that David will be adopted as a son. Expressing legal and political relationships through familial phraseology was common among Near Eastern cultures. Babylonian contracts often expressed fathership and sonship in their grants to actually mean a king to vassal relationship. Further underlying the idea that these covenants were grant-like in nature is the similar language used in both. In the grant of Ashurbanipal , an Assyrian, to his servant Bulta, he describes Bulta's loyalty with the phrase "kept the charge of my kinship". Abraham similarly kept God's charge in Genesis 4—5: "I will give to your descendants all these lands According to Mendenhall, pressures from outside invaders led the loosely bound Israelite tribes to converge into monarchical unity for stability and solidarity.
He also argues that during this consolidation, the new state also had to unify the religious traditions that belonged to the different groups to prevent dissent from those who might believe that the formation of a state would replace direct governance from God. Therefore, Mendenhall continues, these loosely bound tribes merged under the Mosaic covenant to legitimize their unity. They believed that to obey the law was to obey God. They also believed that the king was put into power as a result of God's benefaction, and that this accession was the fulfillment of God's promise of dynasty to David. Mendenhall also notes that a conflict arose between those who believed in the Davidic covenant, and those who believed that God would not support all actions of the state.
As a result, both sides became relatively aloof, and the Davidic covenant and the Mosaic covenant were almost entirely forgotten. Students of the Bible hold wildly differing opinions as to how many major covenants exist or did exist between God and humanity, with numbers ranging from one to at least twelve. See covenant theology and dispensationalism for further information on two of the major viewpoints. Some scholars classify only two: a covenant of promise and a covenant of law. The former involved an oath taken by God - a word of promise instead of command - while the latter is known in the Bible as "the Law". The Noahic covenant [Gen —17] applies to all of humanity and all other living creatures.
Noah and the generations of his posterity were required in their turn to procreate, not shed human blood murder , because mankind was made in the image of God. In addition man was forbidden to consume meat with the blood in it, so the blood must be drained from the animal before consuming. The covenant found in Genesis 12—17 is known as the Brit bein HaBetarim , the "Covenant Between the Parts" in Hebrew, and is the basis for brit milah covenant of circumcision in Judaism. The covenant was for Abraham and his seed, or offspring,  both of natural birth and adoption. With Abraham multiple promised lands were given to his innumerable descendants Gen ; , 19; ; , 24; 28; ; Gal 3; Abr , with special 'gathering' and leadership roles assigned to the descendants of Joseph and his son Ephraim Gen 48 and 50; Deut ; 1 Chron ; Psalm ; Isaiah ; Jer , 9; Ezek ; Zech , and circumcision marking them as a peculiar people set apart Gen In Genesis chapters 12—17 three covenants can be distinguished based on the differing Jahwist , Elohist and Priestly sources.
By contrast, Genesis 17 contains the covenant of circumcision conditional. Covenants in biblical times were often sealed by severing an animal, with the implication that the party who breaks the covenant will suffer a similar fate. In Hebrew, the verb meaning to seal a covenant translates literally as "to cut". It is presumed by Jewish scholars that the removal of the foreskin symbolically represents such a sealing of the covenant. According to Weinfeld, the Abrahamic covenant represents a covenant of grant, which binds the suzerain. It is the obligation of the master to his servant and involves gifts given to individuals who were loyal serving their masters.
In the covenant with Abraham in Genesis 15, it is God who is the suzerain who commits himself and swears to keep the promise. In the covenant there are procedures for taking the oath, which involve a smoking oven and a blazing torch. There are many similarities between Genesis 15 and the Abba-El deed. In Genesis 15 and similarly in the Abba-El deed, it is the superior party who places himself under oath. The oaths in both, moreover, involve a situation wherein the inferior party delivers the animals while the superior party swears the oath. The Abrahamic covenant is part of a tradition of covenantal sacrifices that dates back to the third millennium BC.
The animals that are slaughtered in the covenant in Genesis 15 are considered a sacrificial offering. And it is that covenant which preserves the sacrificial element alongside the symbolic act. The Mosaic covenant made with Moses and the Israelite people at Horeb-Sinai, which is found in Exodus 19—24 and the book of Deuteronomy , contains the foundations of the written Torah].
In this covenant, God promises to make the Israelites his treasured possession among all people [Exo ] and "a kingdom of priests and a holy nation" [Exo ] , if they follow God's commandments. As part of the terms of this covenant, God gives Moses the Ten Commandments Exod ; these are later embellished or elaborated on in the rest of the Torah. The blood of sacrificial oxen is thereafter sprinkled on the altar and on the people to seal the covenant.
Beyond its central religious purpose, the Mosaic covenant was also political. The form of the covenant resembles the suzerainty treaty in the ancient Near East. Unlike the suzerainty treaty, the Decalogue does not have any witness nor explicit blessings and curses. God gave the children of Israel the Shabbat as the permanent sign of this covenant. The Hebrew Bible also mentions another perpetual priestly promise with Phinehas and his descendants. The royal covenant was made with David 2 Sam 7.
It promised to establish his dynasty forever while acknowledging that its original royal-covenant promises had been given to the ancestor of the whole nation, Abraham. The Davidic covenant [2Sam 7] establishes David and his descendants as the kings of the united monarchy of Israel [Jer —21] which included Judah. The Davidic covenant is an important element in Jewish messianism and Christian theology. In Jewish eschatology , the messiah is believed to be a future Jewish king from the Davidic line , who will be anointed with holy anointing oil , gather the Jews back into the Land of Israel , usher in an era of peace, build the Third Temple , have a male heir, re-institute the Sanhedrin and rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age.
The tablets of the Ten Commandments were kept in the Ark of the Covenant , and this became the symbol of the Israelite nation, and of God's presence with His people. Thus when King David wanted to establish Jerusalem as his own capital city he brought the Ark there 2 Sam 6. But older than the Mosaic covenant was the royal covenant [of Abraham extended through David], which promised stability to the royal house. Christian theologian John F. Walvoord maintains that the Davidic covenant deserves an important place in determining the purposes of God and that its exegesis confirms the doctrine of a future reign of Christ on earth.
The New Covenant is a biblical interpretation originally derived from a phrase in the Book of Jeremiah , in the Hebrew Scriptures. It is often thought of as an eschatological Messianic Age or world to come and is related to the biblical concept of the Kingdom of God. A connection between the Blood of Christ and the New Covenant is seen in most modern English translations of the New Testament  with the saying: "this cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood".
Christians see Jesus as the mediator of this New Covenant, and that his blood, shed at his crucifixion is the required blood of the covenant : as with all covenants between God and man described in the Bible, the New Covenant is considered "a bond in blood sovereignly administered by God". The Mosaic covenant is referred to in a number of places in the Quran     as a reminder for the Jews, of whom two tribes inhabited Medina at the time of Muhammad. The verses also mention particular commandments of the Decalogue and, in God's words, admonishes the Jews for being insolent about it and displaying violence against the prophets - a group of them they called liars, and other prophets among them they killed - [ Quran ] [ Quran ] even though they agreed to keep them at the time the covenant was made.
The Quran also states how God cursed the Children of Israel and made them suffer for breaking the covenant [ Quran ] [ Quran ] while also mentioning other covenants such a prophetic covenant with the Israelites in Quran , the Noahic and Abrahamic covenants in Quran , and in Quran and Quran a covenant made with the followers of Jesus apparently very different from how Christians interpret it , who likewise failed to observe it following their own desires. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about biblical covenants. The Vulcans were once an extremely violent and emotional people even by Earth standards who waged almost constant warfare on one another. ENT : " Impulse " They believed in a variety of gods , such as war, peace, and death.
TNG : " Gambit, Part II " As their level of technology increased, the Vulcans eventually reached a point where their violent nature threatened the extinction of their own species. ENT : " Awakening ". In an effort to avoid this fate, a Vulcan named Surak developed a new philosophy , thereby igniting the Time of Awakening. Surak maintained that the root cause of all the problems on Vulcan lay in the uncontrolled outpouring of the people's emotions.
His followers swore to live their lives by an ethical system devised by Surak and based purely on logical principles. Emotions were to be controlled and repressed. TAS : " Yesteryear ". Although this new philosophy spread rapidly across Vulcan, a minority, many of whom were known as "those who march beneath the raptor 's wings ", rejected Surak's ideals. A destructive war began, including the use of atomic bombs , and among the victims was Surak himself. The war was instigated by the actions of a member of the Q Continuum. VOY : " Death Wish ". Another group that rejected Surak's philosophy was known as the " V'tosh ka'tur ", or "Vulcans without logic". The V'tosh ka'tur believed in controlling emotions by allowing themselves to actively experience them rather than suppressing them.
Some of these also left Vulcan, and took up a nomadic existence. ENT : " Fusion " A prime example of a " V'tosh ka'tur " was Sybok who tried to use emotion rather than logic to find the answer to the creator of the universe. The Vulcans conducted a series of survey missions to the Sol system , as early as ENT : " Carbon Creek " Vulcans were, in fact, one of the first species to develop warp drive , though a century passed between the first warp flight and the breaking of the warp 2 barrier. The Vulcans met with Cochrane at his launch site on the day following the flight. Star Trek: First Contact. Subsequently, the Vulcans offered their technological guidance to Humans, but were criticized on Earth for holding back their development.
ENT : " First Flight ", " Broken Bow " A century after First Contact, the High Command had become worried about Humans, who, like Vulcans, had had devastating wars, but after which had rebuilt and started traveling to the stars much faster. There were those on the High Command who wondered what Humans would achieve in the century to come, and did not like the answer. ENT : " The Forge ". By the mid- 22nd century , Vulcan culture had strayed from the path that Surak had originally laid out for them, to the point that Surak's katra did not recognize it as the culture he had helped to create.
They had ceased being explorers and the High Command, once devoted to that goal, had instead become involved in a conflict with the neighboring Andorians. The Vulcan High Command used an ancient monastery at P'Jem as a secret listening post to spy on the Andorians until June of , when the listening post was discovered by the Andorians and a landing party from Enterprise NX Later, the Humans helped negotiate a peace between the Vulcans and Andorians over a disputed class D planetoid known to the Vulcans as Paan Mokar. Vulcans also became less tolerant of political and philosophical challenges towards the High Command's operations, notably engaging in purges of the Syrrannite group, who claimed that Vulcan society was no longer following the teachings of Surak.
These tensions came to a head in a crisis called the Vulcan Reformation , which resulted in the overthrow of the High Command and its leader, V'Las , who was secretly allied with the Romulans , as well as a restructuring of the Vulcan government including the dissolution of the High Command. T'Pau became a minister in this government. A less aggressive policy towards Earth was also adopted. By the 21st and 22nd centuries, the Vulcans had also made contact with the Cardassians , Trill , Tholians , Klingons as early as , and scores of other races.
As of the 23rd century , Vulcan had never been conquered in its collective memory. That memory went so far back that Vulcans could not conceive of a conqueror. By the 24th century , Vulcan remained one of the principal Federation members, and was deeply involved at all levels of that society. Vulcans were present in the Federation colonies found within the Demilitarized Zone established between the United Federation of Planets and the Cardassian Union by the terms of the Federation-Cardassian Treaty of ; they were among the colonists' representatives during discussions with the Cardassians concerning terrorist attacks by the anti-Cardassian Maquis movement established in the Zone.
At least one Vulcan, Sakonna , acted as a gun runner and interrogator for the Maquis and made use of her people's ability to mind meld in the latter role. The Vulcans' tradition of exploration continued; in the 24th century, a Vulcan ship was the first to make formal contact with a Gamma Quadrant civilization, upon encountering the Wadi. By , the Vulcans had a saying known to the Federation: " We're here to serve. Despite the enmity between the Federation and the Romulan Star Empire, some Vulcans attempted to forge a more cordial relationship with their cousins, ultimately hoping to reunify the two cultures.
Many of these efforts met with little success. History turned out much differently for the Vulcans of the mirror universe. When the Vulcans made first contact with Earth of this universe in , Zefram Cochrane shot the first Vulcan to publicly set foot on Terran soil, believing his vessel to be the vanguard of an intended invasion. Eventually, the Vulcans were conquered by the Terran Empire. By the s , Vulcans were considered slaves to Terrans and not treated as equals. Vulcans later participated in a rebellion against the Empire in the s. By , the half-Vulcan Spock had become first officer of a starship and eventually rose to the top of the Terran Empire itself. Using fans, several of them cooled the Intendant aboard Terok Nor.
Some Vulcans, such as Tuvok , joined the Terran Rebellion. DS9 : " Through the Looking Glass ". In the alternate reality , the planet Vulcan was destroyed by a Romulan named Nero in Over six billion Vulcans were killed, with an estimated ten thousand survivors. After witnessing the atrocity, Spock noted in his log that the Vulcan species had become endangered.
Star Trek Spock's prime reality counterpart founded a colony for the survivors, which, by the following year, had been settled and named New Vulcan. Star Trek Into Darkness. Species which shared some physiological and behavioral traits with Vulcans were categorized as Proto-Vulcan humanoids. One example of this were the Mintakans. TOS : " Journey to Babel ". Vulcans were generally similar to Humans in appearance, distinguished mainly by their pointed ears and upswept eyebrows.
Their skin color was most commonly pale with a bronze or greenish tint, though some had brown skin. Vulcan physiognomy could resemble Humans of European , Asian , or African descent. Vulcans had body hair similar to Humans, and some males could be very hirsute. Vulcan males were capable of growing facial hair , but most chose to shave it. Vulcan teeth included anterior tricuspids , which could be protected from decay for decades by sealing them with a trifluorinate compound. ENT : " Dear Doctor ". In contrast to their external similarities, Vulcan internal anatomy differed radically from that of Humans.
TOS : " Operation -- Annihilate! TNG : " Data's Day ". Vulcan blood was copper -based and was copper- or rust-colored when deoxygenated in the veins and green when oxygenated, in the arteries, or when when bleeding. Bruises and dermal abrasions took on a greenish color. Vulcan body chemistry used little, if any, sodium chloride compared to that of Humans. Vulcans possessed a highly efficient respiratory system to extract the oxygen they needed from Vulcan's thin atmosphere.
They were most comfortable in high temperatures. A Vulcan of advanced age could become more sensitive to lower temperatures. The Vulcan digestive tract was highly adaptable. Although alien foods , notably Human food, would occasionally disagree with a Vulcan, given time, their body could adapt to the alien food. ENT : " Unexpected ". Vulcan hearing was very sensitive. Having evolved on a planet which was mostly desert , Vulcans developed ways of surviving in desert conditions. For example, they could survive for several days without water and had inner eyelids which protected their eyes. Vulcans had a superior metabolism to Humans.
Caffeine and sapotoxins had little effect on them. ENT : " Breaking the Ice " They were also capable of surviving for long durations without food or sleep. Under stress, Vulcans could do without sleep for weeks. TOS : " The Paradise Syndrome " Tuvok once claimed that, as a Vulcan, he was capable of going without sleep for two weeks, VOY : " Muse " although, shortly after making this claim, he was observed to fall asleep in the command chair after having gone a little over ten days without sleep. VOY : " Muse ". Vulcans were, on average, three times physically stronger than Humans, and had considerably faster reflexes.
Vulcans were very sensitive to nitrous oxide gas , which rapidly rendered them unconscious. Vulcans typically had a lifespan of two hundred years or more. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of the Vulcan physiology was the brain. The Vulcan brain was described as " a puzzle, wrapped inside an enigma, housed inside a cranium. A Vulcan's brain was in direct control of most of the bodily functions, acting as a control unit for many organs. Despite this, a Vulcan body from which the brain had been removed was capable of functioning and even walking around albeit in a zombie-like state with a portable life support system.
TOS : " Spock's Brain ". Unlike most humanoid species, traumatic memories were not only psychologically disturbing to Vulcans, but had physical consequences as well. The Vulcan brain, in reordering neural pathways, could literally lobotomize itself. VOY : " Flashback ". Vulcans learned to gain conscious control of many of these functions, allowing them to regulate their bodies to a high degree by simple will-power. When injured, a Vulcan could go into a trance-like state, using this ability to concentrate all of his or her energy on repairing the injury.
VOY : " Resistance ". This trance could be self-induced and gave the physical appearance of near-death. It was similar, in principle, to Vulcan neuro-pressure techniques which could be used to relax the mind and body. The substance trellium-D acted as a neurotoxin to Vulcans, destroying the neural pathways which controlled their emotions. Treatment had to be provided quickly after exposure; otherwise, the damage was irreversible. ENT : " Impulse ". The most famous aspect of the Vulcan brain were the inherent telepathic abilities, such as the mind meld. Vulcans were natural touch-telepaths. Though considerable training was required to utilize this ability to the fullest like performing the fal-tor-pan , simpler contacts did not require any concentration, training, or even conscious knowledge of the act.
VOY : " Blood Fever ". Vulcans called focal points in the bioelectric field of the brain qui'lari. DS9 : " The Muse ". TNG : " Sarek ". Although Vulcans did not, typically, allow themselves to experience uncontrolled strong emotions, they could sense them in others. ENT : " Fallen Hero ". Vulcans were capable of performing a synaptic pattern displacement , or the transfer of one individual's consciousness into another.
The psycho-suppression system responsible for the Vulcan suppression of emotions was located in the mesiofrontal cortex. VOY : " Meld ". Approximately every seven years, adult Vulcans had to endure pon farr , the Vulcan mating period. It was marked by intense emotions and primal urges known as plak tow , or "blood fever" that could kill the Vulcan if not satisfied. Physiological symptoms included elevated dopamine levels and fever. For such an orderly society of quiet sobriety, the madness which accompanied the outbreak of pon farr was an unavoidable evil.
Vulcans and Humans could not reproduce without medical intervention according to s medical knowledge. The child, whom they called Elizabeth , had many genetic flaws due to the method of her creation and she died. The Vulcan heritage in Vulcan-Human hybrids was dominant, with copper-based blood, pointed ears, and the full range of Vulcan abilities. The government on Vulcan was a representative democracy. Individual political advancement was based on meritocratic principles. The Vulcans held a number of spiritual beliefs.
Their religious system was polytheistic. They also believed in the katra , the soul and consciousness of a person, which could be transferred psionically prior to death. Vulcans were generally non-violent, but logic dictated that combat was sometimes necessary. Vulcans could and did use weapons and practiced martial arts called tal-shaya and Suus Mahna. Most later Vulcans were vegetarians. Vulcans were also known for their high degree of honesty. They were extremely reluctant to tell a lie , and indeed it was said that "Vulcans could not lie.
Also, T'Pol's second foremother directly lied to another Vulcan, telling the commander of a rescue party that her crewmate had died in a crash, so that he could remain on Earth to "study" Humanity. ENT : " Carbon Creek ". In of the alternate reality, Spock managed to deceive Khan Noonien Singh into transporting armed torpedoes aboard the USS Vengeance , as Khan believed they still carried members of his crew.
Khan wasn't aware that Spock had anticipated his betrayal and removed Khan's crew from the torpedoes with the intent to detonate them and cripple the Vengeance. When Khan stated that he'd know if they weren't his, Spock assured him that " Vulcans do not lie " and that " the torpedoes were his ". This demonstrated that Vulcans, while still technically telling the truth, didn't always necessarily tell the entire truth if it was to their advantage.
Tuvok at one point stated, when responding to Seven of Nine questioning him as to whether Vulcans were capable of lying " we are capable of telling lies. However, I have never found it prudent or necessary to do so. Naturally, the development of a Vulcan's lifelong devotion towards logic was encouraged at a very early age. Vulcan parents utilized careful and gentle methods to train their infants in primary logic. VOY : " Human Error " Vulcan children learned, by example, how to detach themselves from their emotions as well, and it often aided in difficult childhood situations.
As parents, Vulcans never restricted their children from real life.War of The Independent. Open Document. Archived from the original on 12 Brief Summary Of The Documentary My Flesh And Blood