⌚ Keto Spinach Essay
Cholirde The Blind Man Lazarillo Analysis channel. Jill, Keto Spinach Essay more question, well, Keto Spinach Essay two! I am a retired Combat Medic who shamefully knew Keto Spinach Essay about mold and the Keto Spinach Essay of mold on the Keto Spinach Essay. What is Keto Spinach Essay by secondary structure of proteins? Please i need Keto Spinach Essay help, what can i add Keto Spinach Essay my treatment, and what can i Keto Spinach Essay to heal. Wernigerode Summary page 9 it Keto Spinach Essay instructions for dosages. It is written as Grieving Process In Nursing Keto Spinach Essay glycine.
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I am also allergic to mold, ragweed and penicillin. I also suffer from allergic rhinitis. After reading about the low mold diet and trigger foods, I see that many of my food allergies seem to be on your list of foods to avoid it you are allergic to mold. Also, I started consuming coconut based cheese, should that be avoided? And does my mold allergy have anything to do with my ragweed allergy? And can you explain more about why vinegar should be avoided, because you do say that apple cider vinegar is OK to consume , but contradicts saying to avoid vinegar.
Hi Stephanie, Mold and fungus thrives on sugar… This diet decreases exposure to foods that might feed fungus and mold warmly Dr Jill. Fellow greater Denver resident here! Is the concept behind cutting these foods out backed up by evidence like randomized control trials that look at cutting these foods out of the diet in isolation or is this just a list you came up with? Interested for a friend with many food issues. I just came from seeing an allergist today who performed a series of tests to determine my allergies: mold penicillium and aspergillus , trees, ragweed, and dust mites.
My biggest concern is the mold because of the terrible reaction I had from window air-conditioners in my new apartment. I opened them up and they were loaded with mold, which I confirmed through a mold test. I was always under the impression that if I had a mold allergy I should not eat foods associated with molds. When I asked the allergist about this he responded that I could still eat those foods. This surprised me. Hi Tess, It would be best to avoid foods any foods you are allergic to… warmly Dr Jill. Is it safe to take bentonite clay and activated charcoal while nursing my 2 month old?
Also, can mold toxicity be reversed through diet and supplementation alone? I am in New York. My lungs are sensitized and react to dust, mold, and cigarette smoke. Is it possible to reverse a high sensitivity to these allergens? Usually the immune inflammatory response to mold CIRS needs to be treated but getting out of the environment will help… first step is to get away from the exposure. One more question, well, really two! I have been out of a moldy environment since Got better through diet, but still lethargic at random times. My DO said my CoQ10 levels are low. I still feel tired when I take a CoQ10 supplement. What blood tests do you recommend and can CIRS cause irregular periods? Jill, Writing from Australia. Single mum with 2 boys.
The damp in this rental is sposed to have been fixed. Dont fully trust goverment as money comes first. Cutting costs. Symptoms go on and on. So tired. Feel like giving up. Doctors are no help on a budget. Cant afford to try more specialists with no results to speak of. Feel… very hopeless. Have to get well for my 2 boys that are 10 and Dont know where to start. Father passed away 2 years ago. Eldest has asperges.
Youngest 3 seperate diagnosis. This cant be all there is. Any suggestions.. Regards B. I am in my mid fifties, have had a life-long allergy to Penicillen and was recently exposed to mold spores and now have all the side effects. Hi Nancy These are likely separate issues. But you could get ill from penicillin exposure. Hi Jill, Ive had trouble breathing due to what i believe is mold in my house….. And are there test that can be done to tell me this….. Hi Jill! My allergist says I probably have APBA and says the treatment is Prednisone for months and possibly and antifungal. Is there a natural treatment for this?
Essential Oils? After reading your diet and replies to comments above, I recognize that many of my food issues developed while living in that moldy home. I can no longer tolerate eggs, gluten, corn, nuts, or dairy. Most coffee and tea bothers me as well. Is there anything I can do instead of take Prednisone for months? Miss seeing you and Aaron. Hi Heidi, You may need to find an expert in mold exposure to help you. Exposure to mycotoxins and mold will often increase intestinal permeability and lead to increase in food sensitivities.
You may need to treat and heal the gut in order to improve. Hi Heidi Mold exposure can affect the gut and cause intestinal permeability which may lead to more food sensitivities. I started working with an FMD a year ago for some major fatigue and gastrointestinal issues. After a very thorough history, and review of all labs and symptoms, the ND suspects mold toxicity is the problem. Based on this, my ND wants to do further testing for markers following the Shoemaker protocol, as well as the nasal testing and suggested a home mold testing kit.
MRI last year came back showing my brain is beautiful. The ND seems well versed in Mold treatment. In one of your responses to a question in the posts above, you mentioned that discussing testing and treatment was too much to discuss in depth. The list my ND gave me says no chocolate. Is organic cocoa powder ok? Really appreciated other things you mentioned in another article infrared sauna. Probably why Neurofeedback helped me so much a few months ago. The clinician used an infrared device before we did neurofeedback.
I have followed your mold free diet for 10 months now and the results are incredible. No more wheezing. No more heart palpitations or shortness of breath. Absolutely no heart burn or acid reflux since giving up sugar. Weight has dropped 65 lbs. May I drink Yerba Mate? I drink it every morning as a replacement to coffee. I also drink green tea, and ginger, which I know is fine.
Hi Debbie That is wonderful! I am so proud of you… You may certainly drink yerba mate! Jillian, can you use organic ground mustard to make your own vingear-less condiments, or is ground mustard itself full of mycotoxins? Can you drink rice beer, such as bud light? Just asking because it is made from rice and not wheat. I am just starting down this road. I am a Graves Disease patient and my ND thinks mold may be at the root of it, I have always been allergic to it. I came across a different list of foods to avoid. Here is the web address of the PDF. It says no vinegars at all, and I use apple cider vinegar a lot. Your thoughts on that? And the differences in these guidelines? Warmly Dr. I see similarities in all of them, but they have quite a few differences too.
Is one better for recovery than the other? Most importantly, I wanted to thank you endlessly for your expertise, passion, and generosity of spirit. You have unknowingly been a North Star for me, and after years and years of searching, I am finally turning the corner on health. Your expertise has afforded me great hope, and your beautiful and compassionate soul has soothed my wounds. I truly do not know how to than you. Hi Lori, There is no one best diet for everyone… you must individualize diet to your body, gut issues, and food sensitivities. I appreciate your kind words so much! It seems contradictory and probably confusing. Hi PC, You are right, very confusing and I apologize. Can mold cause Interstitial lung disease with scarring? I am allergic to mold and have been living in a home with 3 separate mold incidents caused by slow leaks, for 10 years.
I was diagnosed with Valley Fever 6 weeks ago. Do you recommend this diet for someone trying to rid their body of fungus? I appreciated your food options. Dear Jill, thank you for all your info you have put out here for us to read, very informative stuff! Doctors do not know how to help. I am currently taking Cholestyramine once a day I feel very bad couple of hours after taking CSM so I cannot drink it more often per day , and have been taking charcoal also.
I have had hyperthyroid, hypothyroid before christmas, but it has goin into normal TSH numbers today. Why do I have this prolonged fever? Now I am trying out very clean diets, no milk, no grain, no sugars. There are no doctors that I know of in Europe that know about dr shoemakers protocol. I am a nurse and bought Cholestyramine in Spain and am trying it out on my own. What are your thoughts…. Hi Sonja, you are on the right track — perhaps you can find a functional medicine doctor in Europe to help you? Hi I am 24 year old girl and i am often having problems because of vaginal yeast infections. I will be really thankful for your information.
Hi Kazzmika Info here and here. For the organic meat is it ok if i buy it from a fresh farm and put it in my freezer after? Jill, If gut fermentation is going on, how do you correct it? Because i feel this is feeding the mold in my tissues from a fungal overgrowth that was misdiagnosed. How do you get rid of hyphal fungus in the gut and prevent it from spreading which has already done. Hi, Can I cook with organic vegitable broth?
Also- is celery ok? Do I need to make my own tomato sauce or are certain kinds ok? Also- green beans ok? So I have a couple of questions for you. Is the mold diet a diet that you would do for life to help you stay symptom free? Your recipes on your website looks delicious, is there a way to filter the recipes on your website that go with the mold friendly diet? Hi Tami Yes, a mold-free diet would not be a bad idea for you to stay healthy… I do not currently have a way to search recipes by relation to mold-free diet but that is a great idea!
This spring I plan to cover my garden with clinoptilolite to ensure that my foods are not attacked by fungus and replenishing my responsibility of my earth around my house. Has anyone seen the mushrooms that grows in the grass? That is why I am spreading the clinoptilolite everywhere, the fruit trees, the apple trees, all the trees will benefit from this. My darling pet beds have a layer of zeolite under them as they sleep, In my refrigerator I have about 5 cups of it in a box to clean my foods, all of it including the freezer.
I clean my water with shungite and zeolite at the bottom of my 5 gallon glass water container. It takes 3 days to totally clean it but worth it. Hi Cynthia, There is no harm in adjusting sugar intake if you adjust your insulin. However, I do not recommend making any changes unless you discuss with your physician warmly Dr. Hi Lynnia First step is getting out of exposure. You can treat with detox methods that are not prescription but you may need a doctor or expert to help you on the journey — its quite a complicated illness affecting many organs of the body.
Hello Dr Jill, I was exposed to toxic mold 4 yrs ago and have since removed myself from the environment. I can feel that my immune system has improved in a major way from the lifestyle adjustments I have made in regards to nutrition, supplementation and over mind set. I still suffer from chronic bacterial prostatitis, and daily headaches which I believe are a byproduct of my exposure and my compromised immune system for so long. My question for you is if you have heard of the Gerson diet? It is designed to detox the cells, it limits sodium, protein and most fat, while loading them with fresh organic fruits and vegetables in the form of juices every day.
It is a remarkable cancer therapy and has shown large success to a lot of people close to me. My conflict is with all of the organic carrott and apple juice that is designed to detox from a cellular level is this to much sugar for a recovering mold toxic person? Hi Brad, i would not recommend juicing with history of mold exposure unless it was purely green juices. What about almond milk and hemp protein in smoothies?
All so is there a biotoxin specialist near me or that can work with me remotely to order labs and help me make adjustments to my program? I live in Salt lake city Utah. Hey Jill, iv been having trouble with my memory recently which worries me because im only 20 and I think it may be due to mycotoxins, iv cut out all nuts however i still eat quite a lot of macadamia nuts everyday grams worth which i soak for 2 hours and then let them sit in foodgrade hydrogen peroxide for 20 mins and then i pressure cook them for 2 mins.
Really struggling for meals recently as i try not to eat many animal products often and it seems like a lot of things contain mycotoxins, i would really appreciate a reply all this worrying about mycotoxins and my memory is really getting me down thanks a lot -michael. Hi Michael, I would start by checking your environment for mold as it is less likely the macadamia nuts. However, if you are soaking them in water first there is a risk that they nuts could be moldy. You might try sprouted seeds instead, like sunflower, pumpkin, or others warmly Dr.
E and E Thanks a lot Jill, i appreciate that you that took the time to reply, found mold on the roof of my bathroom, Gonna start eating oats again, simpli is suppose to be a low mold brand i think. Hi Jill, I have read that soaking nuts and then rehydrating makes the mycotoxins harmless to humans. Would you agree with this? If so, would this also be true with grains and seeds? I eat a lot of nuts and would really appreciate your opinion. Many thanks, Peter. I have been exposed to Toxic Mold for a little over 5 years. I have had all kinds of health issues and trying to follow a mold free diet. One question that I have is that it is said to not use a microwave to heat up your meals.
What if this all that I have at work and what would you recommend to eat for lunches at work that are easy to make and possible cost effective. Any suggestions would be helpful. Im allergic to environmental mold scratch test. I eat healthy but should i avoid asperigullus oryzae based sauces? I know pistachios are in the avoid list due to higher mold content, but thought if I can do away with the mold using a grapefruit seed extract soak, I might be able to eat them once in a while.. Would this be effective or am I delusional in my quest for food variety while I heal from Mold Illness? Could you please tell of the best way to get filtered water and a store brand if possible. Or any brand or any process.
I use the Berkey countertop filter. Hi Jill, I have recently found out that all my heath problems are from mold in our apartment. My problems are huge.. My whole body aches but doctors treat me symptomatically, which is wasting time. I ask them to check me for mold toxins. No answer. SO stupid. They left me to suffer. All increase during raining. We cannot move out from this apartment, unfortunately. I am living in a hope that soon we could do it. In your recommendations grains are not allowed. They are in my daily meal. Do you have recipes here? How to take an activated charcoal? As recommended? Thank you so much in advance.
Charcoal or other binders are best taken on empty stomach warmly Dr Jill. The goal of a low mold diet is to eliminate foods to which you are sensitive. How do we know if we are sensitive? I have no reactions to the other foods on the list. Do you think I should still avoid them? The goal of the low mold diet is to eliminate sources of mold in the diet not just avoid food sensitivities. Is it safe to take cordyceps supplements while on low mold diet? It is safe to take mushrooms if you are not sensitive or allergic to them. Many patients with mold exposure are very sensitive to mushrooms. I apologize if this question has been answered already: since tempeh is allowed, does that mean tofu is allowed, too?
It would be organic and verified non-gmo. Usually only fermented soy is advised. You should be able to take spiraling as long as no contamination with blue green algae. Grains are highly contaminated with mycotoxins so generally grain-free is best if trying to do a low mold diet. I am being treated in Mass for Lyme and Associated diseases and tested positive for mold: ochratoxin A, Mycophenolic Acid, and multiple citrinin.
If I eat this butter which has lactase enzyme mixed in to balance out the lactose, will that be ok to eat? Or is it dairy in general that is to be avoided? I just discovered I have mold illlness a few weeks a go though I have been on a low mold diet anyways for close to two years as I was reacting to foods to the point I had to eliminate them. I so appreciate your valuable information. I want to be healthy! Could I print this article for myself and my mom for our own personal use and reference? I have been eating plant-based for several months and prefer to stay that way.
I have seen mixed reviews on whether or not beans are okay? That would be my main source of protein along with seeds that are allowed. What are your thoughts on eating a plant-based low mold diet? Jill, Today I begin my detox journey. I am a retired Combat Medic who shamefully knew nothing about mold and the effects of mold on the body. I think GOD so much for showing me and saving my girls. Unfortunately, I believe the mold in our home which was just about everyone known to man for at least 10 years killed me in my sleep. My death wasnt the only problem but a laundry list of other illnesses for me and my wife. I know that we need help before this continues to kill us. Thank you so much for this page.
Thank you, Dr. Jill, for this page. A couple of years ago, I followed your directions for a low mold protocol, and lost a great deal of weight, as well as eased fatigue and other symptoms. I did not keep at it, though, and all returned. Went to my inbox, and there was your email, directing me back to the page that had worked previously! I appreciate all of your work—especially in this area of mold sensitivity. Hi Dawn, Thank you for your lovely kind words! I hope it is helpful warmly Dr Jill. I usually throw away my leftovers after 2 days because I believe that is the number of days that food can sit and then start to develop mold spores. Can you confirm this?
I am currently working with a doctor on a mold detox diet. In a nutshell, my diet at present consists of having eliminated dairy, sugar, all fruit, alcohol, coffee, tea and all dried components that may have become contaminated by mould wheat, rice, quinoa, buckwheat, pulses, seeds, nuts and fruit. I am eating all vegetables with the exception of spinach, kale and beetroot as too high in oxalates , potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, eggs and fish. I also use coconut oil, milk and water to drink, nibble on and cook with, along with olive oil and avocado oil. However, I have never suffered with constipation but am now finding that on this diet I am only going to the loo every days, which is really upsetting me both mentally and physically.
I have been told to drink black strap molasses with baking soda, up to 6 teaspoons to a quarter teaspoon of baking soda, and possibly 3 times a day. HI Caryn I suggest adding magnesium citrate or decreasing binder dose until the constipation is relieved warmly Dr Jill. Thank you so much for sharing all this helpful information; we have been going through a year of various intolerances and allergies with our two year old, only to finally discover mold through mycotoxin testing for him and my husband. Our son does have a few actual allergies as well as SIBO, so our diet is already pretty restricted and we are always finding creative ways to get nutrients he needs.
That being said, I saw you recommended olive oil, and I was wondering if olives were also an ok snack? We make sure they are organic and not in any vinegar, but I was curious what your thoughts were. Thank you! Hey Jill, Thanks for the wealth of information. I have enjoyed reading this article and comments. Also, I drank cashew milk every morning and my Kinesiolost tested me on the milk and said it was ok to drink. Can your spouse be a carrier of mold without any symptoms? Jill, I am a diabetic and am at a loss what to do. I have to have something to keep my blood sugars stable. Are glucose tablets bad for me? I will have to give up the black teas and artificial sweeteners. I never knew about cashews as I eat them by the handfuls not anymore.
Any feedback you can give me would be greatly appreciated. Jill, thank you so much for this very comprehensive list. Also, I was a bit surprised to see Tuna listed as an option under fish due to the risk of mercury exposure. Is there a reason why you list it? Hi Jill, I was wondering are coconut aminos ok on the low mould diet? Or any sub for soy sauce and fish sauce you can recommend? What treatment do you generally recommend for a 5 year old with confirmed Mycotoxins via Great Plains MycoTox urine test , and how long should a treatment regimen be for a year old?
Any insight you can provide would be incredibly greatly appreciated. I have purchased this mold detox kit but confused with the direction and would be really grateful for some clarification. On page 9 it provides instructions for dosages. Is there a missing part of the table which is PM? Or what should be done in the PM? Binder is best 60 minutes before or 2 hours after other supplements or food. The AM and Midday dosing could be anytime twice daily. I recently read several NIH articles about the presence of citrinin in almonds and other tree nuts otherwise considered to be safe on the mold diet.
For someone with a very high citrinin level, would it be wise to eliminate almonds and most other nuts as part of the mold diet and detox? Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Post comment. Skip to content. Call: S. Facebook page opens in new window Twitter page opens in new window Pinterest page opens in new window Instagram page opens in new window YouTube page opens in new window Linkedin page opens in new window Rss page opens in new window.
What Exactly Is Mold Illness? Got Mold? Why Follow a Low-Mold Diet? The low mold diet is designed to support your body in healing from mold illness in three ways: It prevents mycotoxins from accumulating in your body by limiting your exposure to potentially contaminated food sources. It focuses on restoring nutrient deficiencies and imbalances that are caused by mold exposure.
It reduces exposure to refined carbohydrates that feed candida and yeast. To make it simple, I like to break these down into the following three categories: Sugar-Laden Foods Sugars are one of the primary sources of fuel for candida or mold. When following the low-mold diet, you should avoid: Table sugar Glucose Lactose Fructose Mannitol Sorbitol Honey Maple syrup Molasses Candy Baked goods Certain fruits also have a notoriously high sugar content and should be avoided when detoxing from mold. These include: Pineapples Mangoes Bananas Melons Oranges Grapes Dried fruits and fruit juices While sugar is typically the biggest dietary culprit that contributes to fungal growth, fast-absorbing carbohydrates and man-made additives can also promote mold growth — which leads us to our next category of foods to avoid.
Some examples are: Cheese and sour milk products: Buttermilk, sour cream, cream cheese, aged cheese, sliced or block cheese Nuts: Peanuts, cashews, walnuts, brazil nuts Dried fruit: Raisins, apricots, prunes, figs, dates, etc. Grains: Wheat, rice, oats Packaged and smoked meats: Sausages, hot dogs, corned beef, pastrami, smoked fish, ham, bacon Edible fungi: Mushrooms, truffles Alcoholic beverages: Beer, wine, cider, liqueur, whiskey, gin, rum, tequila, etc.
Fermented foods should be avoiding in those patients with histamine intolerance. You can read more about Boosting DAO to break down histamine here. The carrier molecule exist in two states and has binding site for solute molecule. In the native state the binding site of carrier molecule is exposed to high concentration of solute. This is followed by conformational change in the carrier molecule which exposes solute to low concentration. Solute molecule is released and carrier molecule comes back to native state. Glucose uptake by adipocytes, erythrocytes 2. Fatty acid uptake by enterocytes 3.
Transport of glucose from enterocyte into blood 2. Active transport: It transport solute molecules against concentration gradient i. It is accompanied by hydrolysis of ATP. Examples: 1. Secondary active transport: In this type of transport energy required for movement of solute molecule is derived from movement of another solute molecule down concentration gradient. Hence it is called as cotransport.
Carrier is symporter. Glucose uptake by enterocyte 2. Aminoacid uptake by enterocyte 5. Define ionophores and ion channels. Give examples. Ionophores: Ionophores form pores in membrane which allows movement of ions across membranes. Diphtheria toxin. Ion channels: Ion channels are pores channels present in membrane that allow movement of ions across membrane. Examples : 1. Cholirde Cl- channel. Write differences between facilitated transport and active transport.
Transport molecules down the concentration 1. Transport molecules against gradient. Requires no energy. Requires energy. Carrier is saturated 3. No carrier saturation. Influenced by hormones 4. Not under hormonal influence. What are the functions of cell membrane? Membranes separates cell from its surroundings. Shape of cell depends on membrane. Cell interacts with environment through the membrane. Membranes act as permeability barriers. Membranes are involved in energy production. Flow of molecules form cell into surroundings and vice versa is regulated by membranes. Formation of various cell organelles requires membrane. Other model questions are 8. Write note on mitochondria structure and functions.
Write about cytomembranes of a eukaryotic cell. Define facilitated transport and active transport. Give examples for each. Write about membrane lipids and membrane proteins. Explain features of fluid mosaic membrane model with help of a diagram Facilitated transport. Classify carbohydrates. Give examples for each class. Add note on the function of each example.
Carbohydrates classification: Carbohydrates are classified into a. Oligo saccharides, c. Polysaccharides based on their carbon chain length. Monosaccharides: 1. Glyceraldehyde Dihydroxy Acetone 3. They are aldotriose, keto triose, aldo tetrose, keto tetrose, aldopentose, ketopentose, aldohexose, ketohexose and aldoheptose, ketoheptose. Glyceraldehyde and dihydroxy acetone are aldotriose and ketotriose respectively. The phosphorylated forms are metabolic intermediates. Erythrose is an example for aldotetrose and erythrulose is an example for ketotetrose.
Erythrose phosphate is metabolic intermediate. Aldopentose and ketopentose are ribose and ribulose respectively. Aldohexoses are glucose, galactose and mannose. Glucose is present in our blood and gives rise to energy on oxidation. Galactose is a constituent of lactose and has function like glucose. Phosphorylated sedoheptulose is metabolic intermediate. Oligosaccharides : They consist of few monosaccharides. They are disaccharides, trisaccharide etc. Disaccharide consist of two monosaccharide units. Glycosidic bond joins individual monosaccharides. Maltose, lactose and sucrose are examples. Functions: All disaccharides yields energy after their hydrolysis to constituent monosaccharides. Polysaccharides: 1. Polysaccharides are made up of more than ten monosaccharide units.
They are polymers of monosaccharides. They are divided into a. Homopolysaccharides b. Homopolysaccharides: 1. They are made up of only one type of monosaccharide. So building block of homopolysaccharide is only one type. They are glycogen, starch, cellulose, inulin, dextrin etc. Starch: 1. It consist of two components. A major amylose and minor amylopectin components. It has helical secondary structure. Amylopectin has branched structure. For every glucose units a branch point is present in amylopectin. The secondary structure of amylopectin is random coil due to branches. Starch is common polysaccharide in our diet. It is a storage polysaccharide present in our food stuffs like rice, wheat, pulses, tubers, grains etc.
The structure of glycogen is like that of amylopectin part of starch. Though the glycogen structure is similar to amylopectin the number of branch points are more. Branching occurs for every 6 glucose units. It is present in humans and other mammals. It is also known as animal starch because in animals it serve as reserve food or stored material 7. It is present in liver and skeletal muscle in more amounts. Heteropolysaccharides: 1. They are made up of more than one type of monosaccharide. Usually a disaccharide which is made up of more than one type of monosaccharide serve as building block or repeating unit. Hyaluronicacid, heparin, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate etc. Their composition and functions are given below.
Name Composition Functions 1. Heparin — —Iduronicacid- glucosamine sulfate — Anti coagulant Glucuronicacid — glucoosamine sulfate- n — 4. Define carbohydrates. Write their biological functions. Carbohydrates are defined as poly hydroxy alcohols with functional aldehyde or keto group. Functions: 1. They are major energy source for man. They function as reserve food material in man and plants. They are components of connective tissues, bone, cartilage, skin, membrane and nerve tissue. They are components of blood group substances, nucleic acids etc. Carbohydrate derivatives are vitamins, antibiotics and drugs 3. Define enantiomers or optical isomers.
Enantiomers optical isomers : Optical isomers of a compound are called as enantiomers. D and L glucose are examples for optical isomers. Define epimers and anomers. Epimers: 1. They differ in the configuration of —OH and H groups on 2nd, 3rd and 4th carbon atoms of monosaccharide. Glucose and galactose are epimers. They differ in the configuration of —OH and H groups on fourth carbon atom. Like wise glucose and mannose.
Anomers: 1. Anomers differ in configuration of —OH and-H groups on first or anomeric carbon of sugar. Write note on mutarotation. Mutarotation: 1. Due to the presence of asymmetric carbon glucose exhibits optical activity and rotates plane polarized light. This phenomenon is called as mutarotation. It is due to change of glucose form pyranose ring form to open chain form. Write briefly about paper chromatography. It is most widely used separation technique. It is used for the separation of closely related compounds from mixture. It is based on partition principle of the compounds to be separated between two phases.
The mixture to be separated is applied on whatman No:1 filter paper over a short distance from one end. The paper serve as support for stationary phase of solvent system. The solvent system consist of n-butanol, aceticacid and water in the ratio of The paper is dipped in the solvent system and solvent is allowed to flow over applied sample. The water is absorbed by filter paper and serve as stationary phase. The organic solvent that moves over the paper is known as mobile phase. Compounds which are more soluble in organic solvent move faster. The relative mobility of the compounds during chromatography depends on the partition coefficients of the compounds in two solvent phases. So similar compounds which have different partion coefficients move to different extents.
The ratio of the distance moved by compound to the distance moved by solvent is known as Rf values. Rf values are different for different solvent systems. Sample Application Compounds are identified by staining. Aniline or silver nitrate are used to stain Galactose carbohydrates after separation. Among carbohydrates glucose moves faster followed by galactose. Glucose Fructose Paper chromatography is also used for separation of Solvent Front amino acids.
Other model questions are 7. Write a note on monosaccharides. Define disaccharides. How sucrose and maltose differ with respect to a. Structure b. Source c. Function Write briefly about structure and functions of starch and glycogen. What are polysaccharides? Write briefly about mucopolysaccharides Write four functions of carbohydrates. Write composition and functions of a. Hyaluronicacid b. Write composition and function of lactose. Classify proteins based on composition giving examples for each class. Proteins classification, based on composition. According to this proteins are classification into a.
Simple proteins. Conjugated proteins. Derived proteins. Simple proteins:Are those proteins which yields only aminoacids on hydrolysis. Ex:Trypsin, plasma albumin, pepsin etc. Conjugated proteins: 1. Are those proteins that yields aminoacids and other organic or inorganic molecules or non protein molecules on hydrolysis. The non protein molecule is called as prosthetic group. Usually conjugated proteins are named according to the name of non protein. Some examples are tabulated below. Conjugated protein Non protein part Examples 1.
Heme proteins Heme Hemoglobin 2. Glycoproteins Carbohydrate Immunoglobulins 3. Nucleoproteins Nucleicacid Chromatin 5. Phosphoproteins Phosphorus Casein 6. Metalloproteins Metals Cytochromes c. Derived Proteins: Are those proteins that are derived from partial hydrolysis of simple or conjugated proteins. Gelatin, Peptone and proteose are examples.
Classify proteins on the basis of solubility giving examples for each class. Classification of proteins based on their solubility. According to this proteins are classified into a. Sclero proteins. Albumins:Are those proteins that are soluble in water as well as salt solutions. Egg albumin, plasma albumin and lactalbumin are examples. Globulins: Are proteins weakly soluble in water but soluble in salt solutions. Ovoglobulins, plasma globulin and lactoglobulins are examples. Glutelins: Are proteins soluble in mild acids and alkalis. Protamines: Are proteins soluble in water and ammonia. Fish proteins like salmine and sturine are examples.
Histones: Are those proteins which are soluble in water and dilute acids. Histones present in chromosomes are examples. Prolamines:Are proteins insoluble in water and alcohol but soluble in dilute alcohol. Plant proteins zein and gliadin are examples. Sclero Proteins: Are proteins insoluble in water, acids and alkalis. Animal proteins keratin, elastin and collagen are examples. Describe structural organization of proteins. OR What is primary, secondary, tertiary and qua ternary structure of proteins? Explain each one giving examples. Primary structure of proteins : 1. Aminoacid sequence of a protein is known as primary structure of protein.
Peptide bonds and disulfide bonds are involved in primary structure. It consist of two polypeptide chains. They are A chain and B chain. Inter chain di sulfide bonds links two chains. Further an intra chain disulfide bond is present in A chain. Glycine is the N-terminal aminoacid and aspargine is the C-terminal amino acid in A chain. In the B chain alanine is C-terminal amino acid and phenyl alanine is the N-terminal aminoacid. Two dimentional folding of polypeptide chain is known as secondary structure of protein.
The folding of protein chain can be ordered or disordered. Peptide bonds are involved in hydrogen bonding. There are 3. Peptide bonds that are four aminoacid residues away participate in hydrogen bonding i. Adjacent segments of a protein or polypeptide chain may also form secondary structure. Polypeptide chains are fully extended along long axis in beta pleated sheet. Inter chain hydrogen bonds stabilizes beta pleated sheet. Pleated sheet is found in many proteins. Tertiary structure of protein: 1. It is formed due to three dimentional folding of polypeptide chain of protein in space.
Tertiary structure of protein contains ordered and disordered secondry structures i. Several non covalent bonds stabilizes tertiary structure. Usually it refers to native conformation of a protein. Internal hydrogen bonds, electrostatic, hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions are bonds that keep tertiary structure intact. In the case of proteins that are made up of only one polypeptide chain tertiary structure is the final level of protein structure. Quaternary structure of protein: 1. Proteins which are made up of more than one polypeptide chain contains quaternary structure.
Such proteins are known as oligomeric proteins and constituent polypeptide chains are referred as sub units or protomers. Lactate dehydrogenase etc are examples for proteins with quaternary structure. Hemoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase are made up of four subunits whereas creatine phosphokinase contains two sub units. Define proteins. Write their functions. Proteins are polymers of aminoacids. The aminoacids are joined by peptide bonds. Hence they are also called as polypeptides. Proteins are present in body. They are structural components of tissues, cells etc. Proteins function as hormones 3. Proteins functions as enzymes 4.
Proteins regulate gene expression. Proteins perform transport functions. Proteins are used as nutrients. Proteins act as buffers. Proteins act as reservoir of minerals Proteins act as infective agents. Classify proteins based on their shape. Protein classification on the basis of shape. According to this proteins are divided into a. Fibrous proteins b. Globular proteins. Fibrous Proteins: Are proteins in which polypeptide chains are elongated. Keratin, collagen and elastin are examples. Globular Proteins: Are proteins in which polypeptide chains are folded into globular or spherical shape. Hemoglobin, albumin and trypsin are examples.
Write briefly about protein denaturation. Denaturation of protein is loss of native conformation. Heat Protein Denatured Protein 2. Denatured proteins exhibit properties which are not shown by native protein. Loss of biological function. Solubility changes. Susceptible to enzyme action. Increased chemical reactivity. Dissociation of subunits in case of oligomeric protein. Methods of protein denaturation By several ways proteins are denatured. They are 1. By exposing protein to extreme acidic or alkaline PH. High temperature. Use of detergents like sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS. By treating with strong acids like trichloroacetic acid TCA , Tungstic acid and picric acid.
Exposing to ultraviolet light. Using salts like urea and guanidinium chloride at high concentration. Vigorous shaking. Heavy metal exposure like lead, arsenic, mercury etc. By organic solvents like acetone, alcohol etc. Protein denaturation is part of estimation of blood constituents. Plasme protein separation involves protein denaturation. Isolation of protein or enzyme from mixture of proteins involves denaturation. Examples for protein denaturetion: 1. Exposure of egg albumin to high temperature leads to formation of coagulum.
Sweet tasting protein monellin loses its property on denaturation. Write methods for determination of protein primary structure. Primary structure of protein is determined by a. Sanger's method. Edman's method. Sanger's method: 1. In this 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene FDNB is used to determine primary structure of protein. FDNB reacts with free aminogroup of protein to produce yellow 2, 4 — dinitrophenyl residue of aminoacids which are identified after chromatographic separation.
In this method also primary structure is elucidated from N-terminus. However complete sequence of protein is obtained by repeating several times with Edman's reagent. Unlike Sanger's method Edman's reagent reacts with only one aminoacid and rest of the aminoacids remain intact. Edman's reagent Phenylisothiocyanate reacts with free aminogroup in presene of acid to produce phenylthiohydantoins which are estimated by using chromatography.
Describe composition and functions of various plasma proteins. Several structurally and functionally different proteins are present in plasma. They are albumin and various components fractions of globulins. It is involved in maintenance of blood volume. One gm of albumin can hold 18ml of fluid in blood. It is involved in transport of several substances. Further it binds to various substances and drugs. Fatty acids and bilirubin are transported by albumin. Several hormones also transported by albumin Sex hormones and glucocorticoids are transported by albumin. Albumin function as buffer. Peripheral tissues use albumin as nutrient. Further each of subglobulin fraction consist of several proteins.
It is an inhibitor of trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase etc. It prevents action of proteases on pulmonary tissue and other tissues. Prothrombin: It is one of the blood clotting factors and involved in blood coagulation. It is considered as tumor marker for liver cancer. Thyroxine and retinol binding proteins are involved in the transport of thyroxine and vit.
A respectively. It combines with proteases to form complex which is then easily removed from circulation. Haptoglobulin: It is involved in the transport of hemoglobin. It combines with hemoglobin to from complex. Erythropoietin: It is required for formation of reticulocytes. Ceruloplasmin: It is also known as ferrooxidase. It is a copper containing protein. Pseudo choline estrase: It is an enzyme present in blood.
ComplementIt is one of the component of complement system. C-reactive protein is another component of this plasma protein fraction. C-Reactive protein: It is produced in inflammatory condition. Immunoglobulins They are involved in defence function. They are antibodies present in serum. They are produced when foreign molecules or antigens enters inside body.
Structure: 1. Generally an Immunoglobulin is made up of 4 polypeptide chains. The molecular weight of this is about daltons. Two types of polypeptide chains are present. Two heavy or H chains and two light or L chains. Each H chain molecular weight is 50, and contains aminoacids. Molecular weight of L chain is about 25, and contains aminoacids. The aminoacid sequence varies in variable regions of H and L chains and largely depends on class or type of immunoglobulin. Generously salt the pasta water. The key to good pasta is to cook it in water that has been heavily seasoned with salt.
Make the homemade dressing in a jar. Rinse the pasta for cold pasta salad. Once the pasta is done cooking, drain it then rinse in cold water to rinse off the gluten that can make the pasta gummy. Keep the veggies crisp and cool by allowing time for the pasta to cool before tossing it with the vegetables. Or use salami or chunks of chicken instead. This is one of those cold pasta salads that totally works with what you have on hand. Or for pleasing those picky little eaters. This salad lasts for days.
And the third shortcut? Forget making this salad for the masses and make it for yourself to eat for lunch for the week. With this ingredient list it will hold up well for several days on end. Italian dressing from scratch is best—and easy! But homemade is definitely best in this case! If you make this recipe, please let me know! Leave a star rating on this recipe below and leave a comment, take a photo and tag me on Instagram with foodiecrusheats.
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