✯✯✯ Mccandless And Croom: Comparative Analysis
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Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA): Principles and Application
Avoid making generalizations about the entire period if you wish to relate literary works to known historical events. In order to answer questions effectively, it is important to understand what you are being asked to do, so look at the terms of the question i. If you are asked, for example, to "consider the dramatist's treatment of old age", it is not sufficient to list plays in which old people appear. To describe or list is not to 'consider'. With this question, you might need to start by considering how we know characters' ages: do they make explicit reference to being old? King Lear, for example, say he is very old, whereas Richard 3 could be any age from 20 to Think about the things that usually go with old age such as worldly experience, wisdom, disease, and often a concern to secure the futures of children.
You might want to take a pair of contrasting characters such as the sick old king in All's Well that Ends Well and see how he differs from the dying Edward in Richard 3. Alternatively, you can look for moments where commonplace sayings about old age are implicitly refuted by the ensuing action, as with Jaques' Seven Ages of Man speech in As You Like It , which ends grimly with "Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything". This is immediately followed by the stage direction " Enter Orlando bearing Adam " and Duke's Senior's "Set down your venerable burden" 2.
Be aware that Shakespeare's works contain many beautifully constructed aphorisms which we should not take at face value: action can speak louder than these words and must be factored into the equation. There are many ways of answering a question, depending on the texts you choose and the argument you wish to construct, but the important thing is to engage with the question asked and to develop an answer which is clearly and consistently relevant to the question. In selecting topics on which to write practice essays, remember that your essays will be preparing you to answer examination questions, and therefore you should select essay topics that relate to the three sections of the final examination.
The examiners are particularly impressed by answers that explore the lesser-known works and ones not discussed in this study guide. The balance you draw between Shakespeare's dramatic work and his poems is up to you, and you may well find that even if you do not answer directly on the poems they throw a useful light on the concerns of some of the plays. For example, the homoeroticism that many people find in Coriolanus can be illuminated by a consideration of the homoeroticism in Shakespeare's Sonnets. The best way to read a Shakespeare play or poem is in a critical edition devoted to that particular work.
As well as extensive explanatory notes, these single-work volumes give you introductory essays and suggested further readings. A cheaper alternative is to buy a complete works of Shakespeare and good modern examples are these:. William Shakespeare. The Complete Works. Compact edition. Oxford University Press. ISBN Stephen Greenblatt. New York. The Arden Shakespeare Complete Works. Thomas Nelson. Peter Hyland. Stanley Wells and Lena Cowen Orlin, eds. Shakespeare: An Oxford Guide. Russ McDonald. St Martin's Press. David Scott Kastan, ed. A Companion to Shakespeare.
Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture. Stanley Wells and Margreta De Grazia, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare Studies. Cambridge University Press. Michael Dobson and Stanley Wells, eds. The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare. John D. Cox and David Scott Kastan, eds. Foreword by Stephen J. Columbia University Press. English Professional Theatre, Theatre in Europe: A documentary history. Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, eds. Political Shakespeare: Essays in Cultural Materialism. Manchester University Press. John Drakakis, ed. Alternative Shakespeares. Terence Hawkes, ed. Alternative Shakespeares 2. New Accents. Richard Wilson and Richard Dutton, eds. New Historicism and Renaissance Drama. Longman Critical Readers.
Addison Wesley Longman. Jean E. Howard and Scott Cutler Shershow, eds. Marxist Shakespeares. Accents on Shakespeare. Deborah Barker and Ivo Kamps, eds. Shakespeare and Gender: A History. James C. Bulman, ed. Shakespeare, Theory, and Performance. John J. Joughin, ed. Shakespeare and National Culture. Ronald Knowles, ed. Shakespeare and Carnival: After Bakhtin. Early Modern Literature in History. Patricia Parker and Geoffrey Hartman, eds. Shakespeare and the Question of Theory.
Ania Loomba and Martin Orkin, eds. Post-colonial Shakespeares. Christy Desmet and Robert Sawyer, eds. Shakespeare and Appropriation. Hugh Grady, ed. Shakespeare and Modernity. Philosophical Shakespeares. Jennifer Richards and James Knowles, eds. Shakespeare's Late Plays: New Readings. Edinburgh university Press. David Skeele, ed. Pericles : Critical Essays. Shakespeare Criticism. Gillian Murray Kendall, ed. Associated University Presses. For the 10 plays considered in this subject introduction, the relevant books are:.
Shakespeare: Antony and Cleopatra. New Casebooks. Kiernan Ryan, ed. Shakespeare: King Lear. Graham Holderness, ed. Frank Kermode, ed. Revised edition. Casebook Series. Neil Taylor and Bryan Loughrey, eds. John Russell Brown, ed. Peter Jones, ed. Shakespeare: The Sonnets. Priscilla Martin, ed. Shakespeare: Troilus and Cressida. Stead, ed. Shakespeare: Measure for Measure. Michael Quinn, ed. Shakespeare: Henry V. Kenneth Muir, ed. Shakespeare: The Winter's Tale. Shakespeare: The Last Plays. Wilbur Sanders. The Winter's Tale. Harvester New Critical Introductions to Shakespeare. ISBN X. Jane Adamson. Troilus and Cressida. Harvester Critical Introductions to Shakespeare.
Harriett Hawkins. Measure for Measure. Maurice Charney. Titus Andronicus. Harvester Wheatsheaf. Alexander Leggatt. King Lear. Sheldon P. All's Well That Ends Well. Shakespearean Tragedy. Gary Waller, ed. Shakespeare's Comedies. Shakespeare: The Roman Plays. Terry Eagleton. Rereading Literature. Basil Blackwell. Graham Holderness. Shakespeare: The Histories. Wolfgang Iser. William Ingram. Cornell University Press. Roslyn Lander Knutson. The Repertory of Shakespeare's Company University of Arkansas Press. Gerald Eades Bentley. The Profession of Player in Shakespeare's Time, Princeton, New Jersey.
Princeton University Press. Andrew Gurr. The Shakespearean Stage - Andrew Gurr and Mariko Ichikawa. Staging in Shakespeare's Theatres. Oxford Shakespeare Topics. Thomas Vivian. Croom Helm. Barbara E. Gender and Genre in Literature. Art and Illusion in The Winter's Tale. Marilyn French. Shakespeare's Division of Experience. David Skeele. University of Delaware Press. Heather James. Cambridge Studies in Renaissance Literature and Culture. Suggested Study Syllabus The following is a sample 20 week subject outline to give you an idea of how a syllabus could be constructed for this unit.
You may adapt this outline in any appropriate way according to your own particular interests. Week 1. Background reading on Shakespeare's career and the London theatre world of Week 2. See Chapter One below. Weeks 4. Week 7. Weeks See Chapter Three below. Week See Chapter Four below. Gabriel Egan. Park Honan. Shakespeare: A Life. Chapter 7 "To London--and the Amphitheatre Players" pp. Chapter 11 "A Servant of the Lord Chamberlain" pp. Jonathan Hope. Edited by David Scott Kastan. Chapter 1 "Life and Times" pp.
Peter G. George T. Jonathan Dollimore. Edited by John Drakakis. Edited by Kiernan Ryan. Jonathan Goldberg. Margot Heinemann. ISSN Coppelia Kahn. Kathleen McLuskie. Edited by Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield. Alessandro Serpieri. Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield. Edited by Graham Holderness. Chapter 4 " Richard III " pp. Chapter 6 " Henry V " pp. Edited by Neil Taylor and Bryan Loughrey. Leonard Tennenhouse.
Ian W. Chapter 9 "Conclusions" pp. Ann Jenalie Cook. Edited by John D. Cox and David Scott Kastan. Richard Dutton. Chapter 6 "The Staging" pp. Chapter 2 "Shakespeare's Theatres and the Evidence of the Texts" pp. Chapter 5 "The Three Openings in the frons " pp. Chapter 4 "John Brayne, Grocer: Stepney, " pp. Norman Jones. Jean MacIntyre and Garrett P. Peter Thomson. Chapter 1 "'And that's the quarrel'" pp. Chapter 5 "'Read My Labia: U. Chapter 1 "Burlesque, Mock-Epic and Folly" pp. Edited by Priscilla Martin. Kenneth Muir. Janet Adelman. Edited by David Skeele.
Nevill Coghill. Inga-Stina Ewbank. Edited by Kenneth Muir. Howard Felperin. Margaret Healy. Edited by Jennifer Richards and James Knowles. Edinburgh University Press. Stephen Mullaney. Carol Thomas Neely. Ruth Nevo. Jennifer Richards. David Haley. Newark NJ. Joseph G. Liverpool University Press. Howard C. Urbana IL. University of Illinois Press. Shakespeare in Performance.
Part 1 "Issues of performance" pp. Nicholas Marsh. Palgrave Macmillan. Susan Snyder. Catherine Belsey. Edited by Terence Hawkes. Elizabeth Freund. Edited by Patricia Parker and Geoffrey Hartman. Rene Girard. Edited by Susanne L. New Century Views. Upper Saddle River NJ. Prentice Hall. Jan Kott. Chapter 7 " Antony and Cleopatra " pp. Ania Loomba. Jyotsyna Singh. Richard Wilson. Shakespeare's Roman Carnival.
Shakespeare and the Theatre of Wonder. Chapter 4 " Pericles ; or, the Past and Miracle" pp. Lisa Hopkins. Wilson Knight. Reason Diminished: Shakespeare and the Marvelous. University of Nebraska Press. Chapter 6 " Pericles and the Wonder of Unburdened Proof" pp. Chapter 5 " Pericles Deconstructed" pp. Adrien Bonjour. Edited by Frances A. Shakespearean Criticism. James L. Frank Kermode. Edited by William A. Gordon McMullan. Edited by Jennifer Richard and James Knowles.
Kristian Smidt. Eugene Waith. Douglas C. In particular make sure you know in outline how the guild system regulated trade in the cities and what it meant to be a 'citizen' which is quite unlike the modern notion of citizenship. Be sure to consider each pairing in turn. Bear in mind the limitations of the Elizabethan stage and consider his daughters' objections that the knights are riotous. If he has a specific purpose, does he attain it? The former require an actor to pretend to be a man pretending to be mad and the latter require an actor to pretend to be a man who is mad; are these different kinds of mimesis?
Is this pattern simply a crescendo? Are we to understand him to have already resolved to start the war? What other disjunctions can you find between the promises of each inter-act chorus and that which follows it? Is he right to congratulate himself for his rhetorical power? Are the dreams of Richard and Richmond in the final act also to be taken as premonitions? Consider the problem that the ghosts speak to Richard and Richmond in turn.
Examples might be implied kneeling, holding of hands, or threatening gestures. In each case, consider how you would instruct actors to carry out this business. To what extent does the script limit a director's freedom to give such instructions? By what techniques does Shakespeare fit the fictional world into the theatre? What do you notice about these scenes and the relationship between the main stage and the 'above'? You should be thinking about philosophic notions such as stoicism. How might she be portrayed as a victim instead of a betrayer? You may want to consider what a theatre director might do in the opening scene to create or remove causes for his suspicion. What difference does a father's knowledge of the sin make in the plays? Usually Shakespeare's plays invoke sympathy for those pressured into an unwanted marriage, such as Katherine in The Taming of the Shrew and Juliet in Romeo and Juliet.
What is different about Bertram's case? Parolles's comment about Captain Spurio, 2. Are we encouraged to think it honourable that these young men fight merely "For breathing and exploit" 1. Consider ideas about what constitutes a gentleman in this period. Are there thematic connections between what Lavatch says and the main plot? Are the paradoxes in it such as "there was never virgin got till virginity was first lost" related to the riddle of Bertram's letter? If he has scarcely changed, should we think him unworthy of Helen? Shakespeare occasionally evokes audience sympathy for a character who has been humiliated, even if the treatment were deserved. Is this the case with Parolles?
Is love an emasculating force in the play? Troilus and Cressida 2. Who is the whore and who the cuckold? Does the play invite us to agree with Thersites? Troilus and Cressida 5. What views of homosexual love does the play offer? Is it more debilitating to a warrior's prowess than heterosexual love? Does Antony and Cleopatra encourage us to consider the deaths of Charmian and Cleopatra as sexual consummation?
You might want to consider the solitariness of the play's several suicides. Would it be inappropriate for the audience to laugh? You may want to consider this in relation to the wider conventions of Romance literature. You might usefully think about the dumbshow in the play-within-the-play in Hamlet or compare it to the elaborate stage direction describing silent rituals in The Two Noble Kinsmen and Henry 8. If not, what reasons might the dramatists have for Pericles's extended touring of the Mediterranean? You might consider the role of Tyrrell in Richard 3. In both plays there is a break from the Church of Rome; how is this related to a king's authority? To what extent are the audience encouraged to agree that this is so?
Does the ending of King John serve a similar function? What might be lost in not having boys play female roles? Chapter One. Introduction The compulsory Section A question will consist of one extract from each of six of the ten Shakespeare plays on the syllabus. You will be asked to discuss one of the extracts "in the contexts of the play from which it is drawn and of Shakespeare's other writing, and commenting on language, dramatic interaction, and themes".
It should be clear that this part of the paper differs from the kind of 'practical criticism' exercise with which you may already be familiar. You will be applying the skills of close textual analysis, but in addition you are expected to place these passages in various related contexts. This means that your critical reading of 'the words on the page' should, ideally, be informed by some of the following contexts:. In addition, your critical reading may raise ideological and theoretical questions. These might be consciously and determinedly deployed, because of your own theoretical stance, or specific critical approaches might seem to be invited by the nature of the extract you are considering.
A significant percentage of the marks available can be awarded to your reading of the free-standing text, but an ability to bring in these wider contexts in relevant ways is equally important. Essentially we will be testing your ability to judge how far any passage is representative of Shakespeare's style and the concerns that recur in many of his works. To structure your responses you might choose to start with the words on the page and build out to these wider contexts. But there are no hard and fast rules about structuring, except that, however your answer is organized, the line of argument must be clear and relevant to the question.
Consider the following extract:. This is the pearl that pleased your Empress' eye, And here's the base fruit of her burning lust. To Aaron Say, wall-eyed slave, whither wouldst thou convey This growing image of thy fiendlike face? Why dost not speak? What, deaf? What, not a word? A halter, soldiers! Hang him on this tree, And by his side his fruit of bastardy. First hang the child, that he may see it sprawl - A sight to vex the father's soul withal. Get me a ladder. If thou do this, I'll show thee wondrous things That highly may advantage thee to hear. Why, assure thee, Lucius, 'Twill vex thy soul to hear what I shall speak; For I must talk of murders, rapes, and massacres, Acts of black night, abominable deeds, Complots of mischief, treason, villainies Ruthful to hear yet piteously performed, And this shall all be buried in my death Unless thou swear to me my child shall live.
I say thy child shall live. Thou believest no god. That granted, how canst thou believe an oath? Titus Andronicus 5. An extract in Section A of the examination will typically be between 30 and 50 lines long, as is the above quotation, and there will be six extracts to choose from; you will answer on one of them. Unlike the above quotation, the extracts will not name the play from which they are taken nor will they name the act, scene, and line numbers which indicate where in the play the extract occurs.
The first part of your task in a context question is to identify the play and roughly where in the play the passage occurs; you do not need to identify the act and scene numbers of the extract--although this might be useful, especially if you wish to discuss how the dramatist uses scene-breaks and act-intervals--but you must at least say where it occurs in the action of the play. If you cannot identify the play or the approximate location in the play for a particular extract, you should not attempt an answer on it. Aaron is one of the few black characters in Shakespeare's works Othello being the most well-known , and his skin colour is made much of in the play. Here Lucius ironically calls him a 'pearl' line 4 --ironic because his colour is precisely the opposite of a pearl's whiteness--and draws a parallel between his 'fiendlike face' line 6 and his evil deeds.
The association of whiteness with good and blackness with evil was common in Shakespeare's culture and persists in the varied meanings of the modern word 'fair' light-skinned, just, equitable, reasonable, moderate. Lucius's language here is of a piece with that of Bassianus "swart Cimmerian", 2. Because the baby's mother is Tamora, Aaron claims that it is "of royal blood" line 10 but for Marcus this nobility is overwhelmed by the baseness lowliness of its father, for whom Tamora could not have had love but only "burning lust" line 4. We have seen Aaron committing acts of extreme and pitiless violence, including killing the nurse who delivered the baby to ensure her silence, but it is possible that in the scenes with the child Aaron receives some sympathy from an audience.
In the above passage, it is Marcus who appears unnatural in bargaining with the baby's life for information and using the threat of immediate, and ignoble, execution. Royal executions in this play are by beheading and hanging is the kind of death that a low-class criminal might expect to receive. Yet once Aaron has, in the lines immediately following the extract, revealed the full extent of his evildoing--much worse than that shown in the play--Lucius postpones the execution because hanging is insufficient punishment, and not until the final moments of the play do we learn that he is to die of hunger and exposure. Aaron is concerned to protect his child and strikes a bargain to which Lucius must swear.
Lucius comments that since Aaron does not believe in the gods a religious oath should not impress him. The historical period of the play is ancient Rome before the Christian era, so although Aaron is a moor he could not be a Muslim since that religion began with the teachings of the prophet Mu h ammad in the seventh century after Christ's birth. Aaron's catalogue of evils has parallels in the claims of the moor Ithamore in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta , and indeed the names are linked in the bible: "Ithamar the son of Aaron the priest" Numbers Yet Lucius is sure that Aaron is not at all religious, which is not the same as being of a different sect ultimately derived from Judaism as Christians and Muslims are.
It is surprising, then, that Aaron anachronistically speaks of Lucius's religion as "popish tricks and ceremonies" line This comment would be appropriate for a Protestant of the sixteenth century, and arguably the force of this line is to liken Protestantism to evil non-belief and foreignness. A major strand of the schism which separated the Protestant movements of sixteenth-century Europe from the church of Rome was the worship of representations of divine figures, and Aaron's "An idiot holds his bauble for a god" line 41 is squarely within the Protestant tradition of rejecting 'graven' that is, carved images. Yet Aaron's comment has a wider application and sounds rather like the things Christopher Marlowe was accused of saying about Christian religion see Stephen Greenblatt.
It is also echoed in Karl Marx's comment on fetishism: the savage carves an idol of his god and then immediately falls to his knees to worship the object he has just made see Karl Marx. Lawrence and Wishart. Agreeing to Aaron's bargain, Lucius swears by a singular "god" line 48 which, like the other religious material in the extract, makes sense only in the Christian era that began well after the events depicted. That Aaron does not know what god or gods Lucius holds in reverence is quite compatible with his being a Moor unfamiliar with the details of classical Roman religion which, although it had an entire pantheon of gods, permitted individuals to favour one god in particular.
Lucius does not respond by naming his god, however, and his "my god" sounds monotheistic even though technically it could, perhaps, be interpreted simply as an odd reluctance to name his particular choice from the pantheon. We cannot be sure what Shakespeare's religious beliefs were, but a number of his plays seem concerned with the details of Christian faith such as the role of providence guiding human affairs and the nature of the afterlife. If a character has an identifiable religious conviction say, a Calvinist belief in predestination , try to determine whether the ensuing events confirm or challenge the truth of that conviction.
The entire extract is in iambic pentameter verse, as indeed is the entire play except for a few lines spoken by, and to, the Clown. The passage is typical of early Shakespeare in that the ends of sentences mostly come at the ends of lines, the only exceptions being the exclamations and exhortations of Lucius in lines 6 and 7 which the modernizing editor has treated as short sentences wholly contained within a line. As Shakespeare's writing changed over his career, he increasingly came to start and end sentences in the middle of a verse line, but you should be careful not to confuse that technique with 'enjambment', the practice of carrying over a sentence from one line to the next.
The extract has enjambment throughout, but the particular form is noteworthy: most of the sentences comprise exactly two lines of verse, for example lines 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6, 8 and 9, 12 and 13, 15 and 16, 17 and 18, 19 and 20, and 21 and In the middle of the extract this pattern abruptly ends with the Aaron's summarizing list of the kinds of crimes he has committed lines Lucius and Aaron then exchange single lines with just one two-line sentence from Lucius until Aaron launches on another long sentence of 13 lines lines explaining his faith in the power of Lucius's religion, which he does not share, to make an oath effective.
The extract, then, shows the cut and thrust of dialogue punctuated by two longer speeches by Aaron. It is typical in an execution scene for the condemned man to be allowed a speech and commonly this is used to accept the justice of his fate and the righteousness of the authority that condemned him. The worst kinds of villain in Renaissance drama have a habit of resisting this tradition and speaking, as Aaron does here, of their regrets about not being able to perpetrate more crimes and exalting in the ones they have achieved. Barabbas in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta dies with just such a speech of defiance, although his 'execution' is actually his own murderous device turned against himself.
Aaron in the above extract remains manipulative despite being, so he believes, about to die and his bargaining position is based on knowledge of the reasons for the catastrophes that have befallen the Andronici. If one re-reads this play attending entirely to the perspective of Titus and his relatives, it becomes apparent how little Shakespeare allows them to know of the machinations of Tamora and those close to her; the Andronici appear more cursed by fate than schemed against by people. Aaron and Lucius are concerned with two kinds of posterity: the story of what happened to the Andronici which Lucius longs to hear and the continuation of Aaron's lineage via the black child. To ensure that latter, Aaron gives up the former but he needs to secure an oath from Lucius that the deal will be honoured.
It is an index of Aaron's intellect and cunning--specifically his ability to imagine what is in another's mind--that he can predict the hold of a religious oath over Lucius even while believing this to be a delusion. Reread the list of contexts, some of which the passage should have been placed in by the above comments. Which were not explored? Using the above comments as a model, consider how you would go about placing the extract in those contexts. Write a response to one of the passages from Section A of the examination paper at the end of this subject guide. Evaluate your essay on the basis of the criteria and guidelines given at the beginning of this chapter. Jacqueline Rose. Kiernan Ryan. Edited by Jean E. Howard and Scott Cutler Shershow.
Chapter 5 "Order and Authority in Measure for Measure " pp. David McCandless. Edited by Gillian Murray Kendall. Associated University Press. Arthur L. Little Jr. Robert N. Bernice W. Measure for Measure is sometimes referred to as one of Shakespeare's 'problem' plays. Some of the problems that critics have perceived in it are these:. We are not told if he left Vienna for a good reason. His return to spy on the citizens in the likeness of a holy man seems excessively intrusive. Some of his actions--such as hearing the confession of Mariana--are reprehensible to modern audiences.
The script contains no lines for Isabella's answer, so we are left with no clue how Shakespeare wanted her to respond. The problem seems one of genre, the play being technically a comedy but lacking the pleasurable sense of resolution we expect in comedy. The differences between comedies and tragedies can be many and varied, but the simplest distinction was the one identified by the poet George Gordon Byron:. All tragedies are finished by a death, All comedies are ended by a marriage Byron Don Juan , Typically a Shakespearian comedy ends with marriage and the reconcilement of people who had previously been in conflict, as when the young soldiers are reconciled to Leonato, governor of Messina, and his brother Antonio in Much Ado About Nothing , and at the same time Beatrice marries Benedick and Hero marries Claudio.
Often an 'outsider' figure also has to be cast out of the community, as with Shylock at the end of The Merchant of Venice or Don John at the end of Much Ado About Nothing , but the tone at the close of Shakespeare's comedies is nonetheless usually integrative: the community is 'healed' and its borders re-established by determination of who is within and who without.
This sense of 'healing' is not entirely present, or if present then not entirely convincing, at the end of Measure for Measure. It is as though Shakespeare took the formal requirements of the genre 'comedy' and decided to see if he could conform to them yet produce something more troubling and complex than a romantic comedy. Measure for Measure 1. The detail of the conflict between Austria and Hungary is not important and it is hardly mentioned again in the play, but the way these men relate it to scripture is significant. The First Gentleman appears to think that war is preferable to reaching a peaceful settlement with Hungary, but Lucio claims it is hypocrisy to acknowledge the Christian injunction to find peace yet advocate war.
Lucio thinks of this as being like editing one's own copy of the Ten Commandments, removing a commandment one does not like rather than treating the text as an integrated unit. The First Gentlemen admits that where religious text runs counter to one's entire purpose--as in the imagined example of a pirate erasing 'Thou shalt not steal' from the commandments--then the given text must be altered to suit the circumstances.
Thus this scene raises the question of adherence to biblical injunctions that is explored throughout the play, and indeed in its title. The commandments are part of the Old Testament and thus are Old Law to be understood as later modified by the Christian New Testament which softened some of the Old Law's harshness. In particular, Christ reversed the injunction to revenge:. Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth: But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also. King James Bible, Matthew And unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek offer also the other; and him that taketh away thy cloak forbid not to take thy coat also. King James Bible, Luke He giveth his cheek to him that smiteth him: he is filled full with reproach.
King James Bible, Lamentations of Jeremiah In the final scene of the play, the Duke pretends that Angelo must die to pay for the death of Claudio, and he invokes the Old Law to justify this:. Haste still pays haste, and leisure answers leisure; Like doth quit like, and measure still for measure. Measure for Measure 5. Of course, the audience knows that Claudio has not died, but even if he had the Duke's interpretation of Biblical notions of justice is not right. Even in the Old Law which he should not be using, since Christ overturned it , "An eye for an eye" was not supposed to indicate the minimum retributive penalty a wrongdoer must suffer which would be 'no less than an eye' but the maximum it must be 'no more than an eye' ; this was a rule to limit retribution not promote it.
In using the expression "measure for measure", the Duke becomes like Lucio's "sanctimonious pirate" who rewrites scripture for his own purpose, and where the pirate wants to make it more lenient, the Duke wants to make it more harsh. And most importantly, what will the game be called? Surprisingly, providing such a small amount of structure seemed to be all that was needed for people to start playing with ideas, be creative and Developing Solution Focused games 21 develop some game mechanics. Activities include drawing, singing, acting out and making things to represent the answers.
Using non-verbal means to describe resources and futures can also enable low level construals unexpected context can end up getting included because of the communication medium and also encourages the use of metaphor which may be needed to communicate some aspects non-verbally. Game 2: solution stars This is a game for players of any age, to be conducted at the end of doing some group activity together over hours or days.
Each player attaches stars to their picture that described the target person. By highlighting qualities in the abstract, it is also likely to facilitate the generalisation of resources which could be applied in new contexts. Game 3: the game of hearts This is a game for people who have experienced heart failure and their families. The best hopes for the game are that it will help the family develop a shared preferred future that is desirable, realistic and safe for the person with the heart problem.
The game is played over ten to twelve-week period. The game would be played online with some facilitation by a therapist, but with activities taking place in the real world too. Family members get points for completing tasks. Analysis: This game provides extrinsic motivations for players to try out new ways of interacting with each other and prompts communication. It also creates a structure for and prompts players to monitor their own progress, and through extensive use of circular questions and getting the views of others aims to prompt new perspective taking. Nevertheless, they all have the potential to be useful tools even at their current stage of development. Just imagine what can be achieved with more a little more time to be creative and knowledge of game design for learning principles!
References Bandura, A. New York, NY: W. Beaman, A. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60 9 , — Brown, R. The psychological causality implicit in language. Cognition, 14, — Cade, B. A brief guide to brief therapy. Cheng, J. The mechanisms of psychological therapy with people with long-term physical health conditions Doctoral thesis , Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK. Evans, J. Autobiographical memory and problem-solving strategies of parasuicide patients. Psychological Medicine, 22 2 , — George, E. Problem to solution: Individuals and families. London: BT Press. Gilbert, D. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 88 1 , — Gilbert, P.
Building an integrative science for psychotherapy for the 21st century: Preface and introduction. Psychol Psychother Theory Res Pract, 92, — Hashemi Nasr Abad, T. The relationship between locus of control, self-esteem and social support with coping in University of Tabriz students. Leahy, F. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 25 5 , — Lipchik, E. Beyond technique in solution focused therapy. Moseley, A. Dicing with curricula: The creation of a board game to speed up the course creation process.
Whitton Eds. London: Routledge. A guide to possibility land: Fifty-one methods for doing brief, respectful therapy. Paull, A. Designing card and board games. Raes, F. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 4 , — Roddenberry, A. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41 4 , — Seligman, M. Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60 5 , — Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 10 2 , — Trope, Y. Temporal construal. Psychological Review, 3 , — Wampold, B. How important are the common factors in psychotherapy? An update. World Psychiatry, 14, — Whitton, N. Digital games and learning. New York, NY: Routledge. Williams, J. Psychological Bulletin, 1 , — Wilson, T. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78 5 , — Chapter 4 How to use text messages as a dialogue tool in Solution Focused conversations Anne-Marie Wulf Introduction Nowadays most people have a mobile phone and know how to text.
In my practice, I receive lots of text messages from clients, and I became curious as to how to respond to those messages in an appropriate and acceptable way, so my responses would be helpful. Digital and mobile mediated communication One of the earliest forms of digital communication was the telegraph, which minimized the communication to the least possible and understandable entity Tagg, The patterns of digital communication can be analysed and put into perspective depending on the sender and recipient Hoem, My research focused on text messages put together into dialogues, characterized by a communication pattern produced, distributed and used by single individuals.
Mobile-mediated communication is asynchronous, thus giving the individual time to think and formulate the answer. It gives a shift in time, but only the time it takes to formulate, type and send the message. This means that mobile-mediated communication can be relatively quick from minute to minute, but also take several hours Baym, Referring to Giddens , p. But with mobile-mediated communication, the context is removable and changing, and thus dialogues can take place, regardless of where we are and whether we are moving or not. The linguist Caroline Tagg did a discourse analysis of 11, text messages from teenagers to the elderly, looking at factors such as spelling, grammar, discourse markers and identity construction.
The Solution Focused approach is pragmatic rather than theoretical with presumptions and assumptions about people that can be summarized as follows de Shazer et al. Understanding communication as an interactive co-constructive process led psycholinguist H. Any such completed sequence represents a collaborative constructed unit. Bavelas and her colleagues at Victoria University, Canada experimented in collaborative co-constructing processes in face-to-face dialogues, leading to the development of Microanalysis De Jong et al. Where do you come from? McGee, Del, and Bavelas , p.
It is necessary to ensure that the blade is used to reveal strength and beauty rather than to carve away these same qualities. De Jong et al. Thus they: 1. Some of these topics have already been subjects of research, but how textdialogues can be seen as an approach or tool to support clients reaching their goals or working towards their best-hopes has not yet been explored. The empirical data includes text-dialogues with three clients from three Solution Focused practitioners, of which I am one. The relationship between client and practitioner is built upon weekly sessions and the text-dialogues in this research are seen as an appendix to these conversations.
Is there any way that would make it easier for you to accept, how things are? On a scale of zero to ten, where ten would mean that you have accepted it in a way that is good for you, where would you place yourself? Clients respond with perspective of life and potential opportunities for action, which creates opportunities to talk of themselves as humans with skills, resources and competences.
Lexical choices De Jong et al. Tom Andersen , p. Text-responses preserving words from the client in exact form The coach can preserve single words or phrases from the client to construct the next text message. I could express some emotions that I had tried to suppress, so I could have a good day in the woods tomorrow. But I cannot really do that. And it closed up for it. And as I now experienced, one feeling leads to another, so the whole thing becomes clear for me. Preserved words can be used in the formulation of questions, such as the presentation of a possible action, as recognition of a feeling or as reinforcement. What else do you know, can be helpful? What does your experience say about, how long you have to be in your feelings before it just gets a little bit better?
And how will you notice, that it has become just a little better? Text-responses transforming words from mentee in a positive direction You have to try it too, it tastes delicious! I sit here and smile broadly over your recovery and maybe mostly your will and strength strong arms emoji , May I disturb you with a request from Hanne-Vibeke? So can I call? Her statement is supported by a happy, smiling emoji.
The lexical choice is also seen in the words will and strength, both of which are strong positive. From the microanalysis it appears that to a greater extent than actual words, sentences about emotions, actions and process, are summarized and transformed. Positive connoted words are added as lexical grips in the transformation and makes it possible to bring new perspectives to the client and to reinforce expressions.
When problems are transformed constructively, the client responds with detailed descriptions of their own actions, thoughts, and next possible steps to take. Can I book the card with the Goose? Perhaps the best thing about the cards is that you have found a good way to relax. I think that could be yet another important positive spiral?! CLIENT: The text messages clearly show a dialogue, where both client and coach to support the dialogue frequently use emojis. It all introduces opportunities for the client to talk about herself as an active person.
The client responds with detailed descriptions, produces ideas, forms part of processes and formulates perspectives on her life in positive terms. Conclusion The research concludes that, working from a Solution Focused approach choosing premeditated lexical grips, a coach using text-dialogues can create possibilities for the client to talk about herself in a way where she is active, energetic, capable as a human with resources, strength and possibilities.
This relationship can be described as coach-client, therapist-client or teacher-student. I have shown what happens in text-dialogues between coach and client, when the coach formulates questions anchored in the Solution Focused Text messages as a dialogue tool in SF 35 approach. The prospects in my research is mainly moving into two directions. Firstly, as we move into a more digital mobile lifestyle, text-dialogues can be a helpful collaborative tool, for instance for people in remote areas. Secondly, the research states that working from a Solution Focused approach gives clients the opportunity to talk about themselves in a positive, future-oriented way. References Andersen, T. Baym, N. Personal connections in the digital age: Digital media and society series 2nd ed.
Cambridge: Polity Press. Dalsgaard, C. De Jong, P. An introduction to using microanalysis to observe co-construction in psychotherapy. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 32 3 , 17— Copenhagen: Hans Reitzels Forlag. Clues: Investigating solutions in brief therapy. More than miracles: The state of the art of solution focused brief therapy. Abingdonon-Thames, UK: Routledge. Giddens, A. Modernitetens konsekvenser. Hoem, J. Openness in communication. First Monday, 11 7 , online journal.
McGee, D. An interactional model of questions as therapeutic interventions. Ratner, H. Solution focused brief therapy. East Sussex: Routledge. Sacks, H. A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language, 50 4 , — Sharples, M. A theory of learning for the mobile age. Haythornthwaite Eds. Steensig, J. Tanggaard Eds. Tagg, C. Discourse of text messaging: Analysis of SMS communication. We analysed the feedback and made two consecutive workshops of the Summer Camp concept and then compared the concept with some related events and methods.
In contrast to the SOL world retreats, our summer camps have particularly catered for practitioners working in practice settings, as opposed to organizational work. The group comprised a rich and thoughtprovoking blend of participants from Latvia, Russia, Germany and the UK, hosted by seniors, one from the UK and the rest from Finland, Austria and Switzerland. The result was a peaceful and respectful learning experience. The spirit of SF practice was woven throughout. On a macro level, we evaluated at the end, and then bi-annually since, about the impact.
The replication of the Finnish design in included consistencies and adaptations for the Slovenia design. The two camps considered together have provided valuable information about what people appreciate when they are learning and discussing SF practice, and what is likely to 38 Naomi Whitehead et al. The following steps have helped us to engage with an iterative process and gather qualitative data: 1. Attempting to disseminate in our workshops what we felt were valuable components 5.
Asking participants in a workshop to build their own food canapes with randomly provided ingredients and asking them to explain their choice of ingredients, and analysing their process for co-constructing a new reality 7. Activities included convening on the beach and discussing how each respective country had grown and developed their use of the SF approach, and which actions had achieved the most notable changes. Suggestions were made about ways to take this further. Each day the learning was peppered with engaging illustrations from practice. Through enquiry into the detail of decorating and when decorating went well, the couple found solutions.
Ferdinand recalled a time in Vienna where Steve entered the workshop and sat in complete silence for more than half an hour until an utterly courageous delegate felt able to ask a question. The camp was hosted by Biba Rebolj in a summer house, owned by a relative of her husband. The learning process in the second summer camp was again built on hearing from and discussing with other people, with other experiences and other perspectives.
This led people to check their own ideas and habits, to integrate ideas or to discard. This process was also about new tools. And again, participants were aware how important the correct use of language is. Which aspects of your preferred future do you now see happening in your Solution Focused work that you feel is happening because of your experience at the EBTA Summer Camp? Solution Focused practitioners are great in observing kids and seeing interactions with kids as an invitation to build connection and learn from them in a joyful way instead of seeing them as a disturbing factor. Matthias Schwab from Germany: I think the generosity of the summer camp framework and the willingness to share are the core elements.
The importance of cooperation at all levels has always been evident, for example in hunting the mammoth together in earlier times. Human beings have always learned together, from each other and with each other. One experiences new knowledge and another is brought to new thoughts. Your own knowledge is checked, supplemented or changed and thereby stabilised. The fact that the summer camps could take place in nature, without much distraction, and that the participants not only learned together in the narrower sense, but also lived together, meant that full sensory experiences could take place. Learning was a lot of fun and aroused many emotions. Lots of interesting experiences could be shared mutually between the seniors and the other participants.
Even the other activities, like singing songs together, doing interesting exercises spontaneously or simply going for a walk, were characteristics of this ongoing process of spending time together in a relaxed atmosphere, in a special and uniquely mindful way. This kind of mindfulness, experienced and practiced in such a context, can be seen as putting some of the main cooperation principles of the SF approach into Sharing experiences in a SF way 43 daily life.
The meanings are created, evoked and negotiated by the participants in conversational actions, which also evoke and induce other meaning-systems connecting the context to other and future contexts. Summer camps are usually programmes in the summer months for children and youth. The purpose is usually to learn or develop new skills. Young people often get new friends and experiences being away from their families. All seniors and participants agreed that there was a magic to meeting one another in these unusual contexts.
By its very nature, it caused pattern disruption. Of course, this is applicable to most of our existence. However, when commencing a work project, you usually have an idea of the location, schedule, stock responses and professional dialogue, which normally occurs, timings are often predictable and there are less demands for improvisation. Alan Kay Stellamans, shares the sentiment that: … the kitchen table is a place where hospitality, sharing knowledge, having a rambunctious conversation and encouraging disagreements, plus a few laughs, frames the opportunity for people to be creative in ways they do not expect. Figure 5. This is nicely shown in this short episode from the Summer Camp and depicted in Figure 5. The challenge became harder due to heavy rainfall where they had to stand.
The smiles and laughter in Sharing experiences in a SF way 45 the interaction reveal how both enjoyed the experience. This expertise was nicely built up by Naomi, the mentee and supported by Ursula, the mentor. This is one example of how the unexpected, the challenge and a resulting expertise can occur in a summer camp context. Mentorship In evaluating the essence of the summer camps, we agreed mentorship was an important feature of their success.
Communication and marketing of the SF approach has historically always been less through formal professional means, such as journals, and typically more through people meeting in unusual ways such as at the Brief Family Therapy Centre in Milwaukee, and then going back home and creating clusters of interest there. The emphasis is on developing the expertise of the mentee, encouraging independence, autonomy and selfdevelopment NHS Academy. This description, at least in some part, appears to be congruent with the assumptions and philosophy of the founders of the SF approach, and we think the unfolding of a version of this process 30 years on is something worth noticing Vogt et al. The mentors both inspired and made them feel inspiring.
By showing huge interest in what the mentees had to say, and listening attentively, they made them feel important, equal and therefore very open to learning, even when the discussions were complex and academic. They somehow facilitated openness and a desire and ability to be the best version of oneself. Implicit within this way of being is the sense SF supporters have an intrinsic wish to transfer their wisdom and amplify its scope and reach.
A formula which we have found through conversation has instilled an appetite to understand what role they play, particularly in the creation of other novel ways of being to develop the SF approach that may emerge as a result. Thus, emphasising the importance of personal relationships. I was impressed by the impact this research had on conversations. Any such completed sequence represents a collaborative meaning-creating entity. Conclusion The low-cost, low-maintenance, non-hierarchical EBTA summer camp model is one of many unique and intriguing ways for people to deepen their SF knowledge and practice, develop networks and be further energised to promote the approach internationally.
We also conclude that the model can play an important part in continuing the legacy and spirit of the approach as begun by the founders. Finally, we think this whole chapter bears tribute to the observation that: The international SF community has a reputation for openness, generosity and appreciation, and is seeking to keep the approach an open source in an age of licensing and intellectual property. Solution Focused Approaches to Management. Chapter Some uses of metaphor. Australian Journal of Family Therapy, 3 3 , — Fredrickson, B. Love 2. Kline, N. Time to think: Listening to ignite the human mind. London: Ward Lock. McCarthy, I. Context, December, 6— Solution focused approaches to management.
SF work. NHS leadership academy. Have you heard the latest rumor about …? Solution-focused therapy as a rumor. Family Process, 37 Fall , — Srivastava, P. International Journal of Qualitative Methods. SF at the kitchen table — An interview with Alan Kay. InterAction, 6 1 , 81— Virtanen, V. Korkeita vuoria ja suuria kokemuksia Meaning: High mountains and big experiences. Helsinki: ISBN Vogt, M. London: Solutions Books. Wallace, D. Yes man. London: Ebury Books. Wulf, A. Working as a solution focused mentor — What we do and how we do it.
Switek, B. Panayotov Eds. And in some senses of the word this is true. SF practitioners do not have a theory about their clients, nor do they have a theory about why they are experiencing problems or challenges that lead them to talk to a practitioner. Links have been established to discursive psychology, enactive and embodied cognition, social constructionism, the philosophy of Wittgenstein to name a few.
In this section of the book, you will be able to immerse yourself in the state-of-the-art thinking and theorizing about SF. He asks and answers the question of how it is possible that describing things in therapy sometimes changes the situation for the client. McKergow explores what is happening when practitioners encourage the clients to describe better futures or successful past experiences. How the client describes his or her world, how the client views his or her world has an impact on what the client deems possible. RFA allows for visualization of the process of a conversation.
We learn about how Esther experimented with inviting her clients to think of gestures or movements representing their perfect future and capturing those on video in her sessions. Clients were invited to view those recordings in between sessions — one of the things they remembered most clearly where those gestures of the perfect future. Esther and Guy also describe their very creative workshop exercises from the conference. The metaphor of width and narrowness pertains to whether the client is invited to think more narrowly about a solution to a problem or more widely about other areas of behavior, thought and interaction.
Joe Chan from Singapore explores what marks a program for young people as an SF program. As I was editing these lovely contributions, I was amazed at how all of the authors bring to life theory in an amusing and easily understandable way! I hope you will enjoy reading these chapters as much as I did. There are good reasons for this, particularly in terms of explanations relating to the client and their situation.
After all, what else is a diagnosis but a kind of explanation? SF work is based on what the client wants, and what is working for them. Steve de Shazer himself pointed out that once accepted, the explanatory metaphor can obscure and distract from all kinds of useful conversations de Shazer, , p. This is all well and good in terms of working with clients. But what happens when we are asked by other professionals about our work? It seems like a reasonable question — after all, other schools of practice have their own explanations. This may appear nicely coherent to us, but risks looking dumb, incurious and downright unethical to others. Not a good look. This chapter explores the question of how we can give a brief and convincing explanation of our work — while maintaining a theoretical coherence with the SF literature and practice.
Stretching the world 51 SF 2. Their work involved one-way mirrors, a team of therapists observing the therapeutic interaction, consultations between the main therapist and team out of sight of the client, leading to the construction and delivery of an end-of -session message and task to the client. The intervention was intended to interrupt some key pattern holding the problem in place, allowing new behaviours to emerge. This shift to description has been extended by Iveson and McKergow What is happening when we encourage our clients to describe better futures and instances from the past in detail? He became interested in how organisms interacted, or knew to interact, with their environments. These signs are what makes the world of the tick — other matters such as the time of year or the state of the stock market are simply not of concern to the tick.
This kind of argument was extended by American psychologist J. Whereas the tick responds to warm fur in its immediate vicinity right now, we can remember many things which are not immediately present — I know to go to the kitchen when I am hungry and want an apple. With the question of language however, humans are way ahead of any other species. We can bring things like crocodiles into our presence with language, we can learn and pass on information with language, we can co-ordinate and co-operate with language.
Imagine walking through a forest with a botanist, an artist and a survivalist. The artist is noticing the light, the colours, the shapes, and can produce work which somehow brings these things into a new representation. And yes, he also uses the door frame to enter and exit. De Haan et al. In my view, the work of De Haan and her colleagues open up huge possibilities for all kinds of clinical work, which have so far made little impact in practice. Here is a small example taken from a session reported in Iveson and McKergow , where Mary is talking about her partner returning from work the day after the miracle.
MARY: I would be … instead of a worried, stressed, anxious look on my face maybe a smile. MARY: I think my body language would just be so … you know normally he has to come looking for me whereas I would imagine that I would be open to go and cuddle him instead. You know? MARY: Possibly, yeah, absolutely. You might have to have the paramedics on standby, yeah.
I think it would be shock, but pleasant shock rather than shock shock. Where would you be cuddling him? I never go to the door. Not rigid and tight. MARY: I think they might be quite tight around me and probably hold me for longer than normal. And what would you notice about how you handled that? We have to wait and see Changes will continue after the session too. The client will leave the consulting room with their world already stretched and will live into their new worlds. Discussion of that must await further writing and conversation. References Chemero, A. Radical embodied cognitive science.
De Haan, S. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, Fisch, R. Gibson, J. Bransford Eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Hutto, D. Radicalizing enactivism: Basic minds without content. Iveson, C. Brief therapy: Focused description development. Journal of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy, 2 1 , 1— InterAction, 1 1 , 78— SFBT 2. Journal of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy, 2 2 , 1— From solution to description: Practice and research in tandem. Franklin, T. Trepper, E. Gingerich Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Varela, F. The embodied mind: Cognitive science and human experience.
Berlin: Paetel. They also share the importance they give to researching their activities. In this chapter, we present one of the possible methods of analysis used to study the professional helping conversations, the Recursive Frame Analysis RFA. This question necessarily comes hand in hand with another one — one asking for an explanation — how did the change occur Kazdin, Elliott, ; Greenberg, It has later been developed into a standalone qualitative research method, which is being used in studies of not only therapeutic, but of professional conversations overall. As the last theoretical source of inspiration of the RFA, we have mentioned the performing arts. Bradford Keeney, the author of the RFA, is a jazz piano player and composer. He understands the helping profession as being of artistic character Keeney, , According to this model, the creative performance requires a gradual transition through the three acts: an opening act, followed by a middle fulcrum bridging to the culmination of the performance in an ending act Keeney, ; Keeney et al.
This simple three act structure Figure 8. The authors of the RFA describe the individual acts of this movement as follows: We must, again and again, remind ourselves that neither a session nor life itself is a straight ahead linear plot line. Keeney et al. By moving into Act 2, a helping conversation appears to move out of the frailty of the impoverished frame towards something creative and potentially useful for the client. According to our experience, it is possible to describe it in eight general and overlapping steps, similar to the ones used in discursive psychology Keeney et al. Research objective Data collection Data processing Transcription Data analysis Presentation of outcomes and the visualisation forms of the RFA Additional methods of analysis Quality management of the research Research objective The RFA can be used to analyse the performative level of the usage of language in a conversation.
The objective of the research studies Recursive Frame Analysis RFA 61 using RFA as their methodology is usually formulated in a general way and is developed by the aid of additional research questions Keeney et al. These specifying research questions can be reformulated, or newly formulated based on the actual work with the data. Data collection The collection of data is directly linked to the research objective. Generally speaking, RFA analysis intends to work with naturally occurring data, data that would occur even if they were not collected for research purposes Lester et al.
Chenail, ; Keeney et al. Data processing The next phase, data processing, is closely related to the previous one. During this phase, the data gets stored, shared, organised, transcribed and annotated Lester et al. It is key for the data processing phase to be done in a transparent, structured and legal way. Due to the character of the RFA, where the researchers constantly oscillate between the recordings, the transcriptions and the analysis outcomes, setting up the data processing system represents a crucial step for possible future success.
Transcription The recordings need to be transcribed. Transcription is a key element of the analysis process Chenail, ; Lester et al. The analysis always works with the transcripts and with the recordings in a parallel manner Lester et al. Table 8. Onomatopoeia are transcribed verbatim if possible Simple descriptions of nonverbal elements can be added in brackets, avoiding any interpretation p. The frequency of the annotation is every 5 minutes and the annotation always on a new line eg: — 15 min. Along the course of this analysis, the content what is said , the consequentiality what comes when, what precedes, and what follows and the process exploring the movements from one topic to another of the conversation can be followed, including how individual actors use the language to create shifts in conversation Chenail, ; Wiggins, The key principle of this analysis phase is to remain as close to the original data as possible, for example in consistently using the language of the studied conversation to name the observed frames Keeney et al.
It studies how the participants of the helping conversation themselves contribute to the changing of frames. This level of analysis also addresses how changes have taken place between individual acts, who from the individual participants of the conversation contributed to the change, and how they did it. Although the authors of the RFA method do not mention the work in teams directly, it is optimal to implement the usage of this research instrument in research teams Chenail, ; Peng, The aim is to encourage the development of the shared understanding of the studied conversations with the aid of mutual exchanges between various team members, the so-called data sessions Hill, ; Wiggins, Over the course of an RFA analysis, one constantly circles between all of them.
Presentation of outcomes and the visualisation forms of the RFA By the RFA outcome presentation, the researchers focus on visualising the structure of the therapeutic conversation, its performative aspects and on capturing the moments of creative development and change. At this point, we would like to introduce the presentation form we use, and which is particularly suited to capturing the process of change occurring Recursive Frame Analysis RFA 65 in a conversation. In a routine research report, the transcript or at least its key parts would be available for the readers to monitor the way the researcher designs individual frames and galleries. In this chapter, only an illustrative example of one of the presentation forms of the RFA is provided.
The transcript has been omitted due to limited space. The individual frames or galleries are then shown in the three columns marked with individual acts. In an RFA report frames can either be listed individually, or they can be grouped into more generalised galleries. This example lists both individual frames and galleries. The diagram shows a Solution Focused conversation, facilitated by one of the authors L. See especially the frames marked 1. We try to compensate for this shortcoming by numbering the individual frames and by listing the frame number whenever a given frame re-enters into a new frame.
The use of — preferably colour coded — arrows is also possible. Yet, depending on the objectives of the research project, it can be supplemented by or complement other analytical tools and procedures. Act I. Utterance impoverished context Act III. LIKES 1. Circus and acrobacy rope walking. Keeping a diary. Reading books. What are your best hopes from this session? What helped to find and maintain the balance. It allows the researchers to focus on the levels of a action b fact and interest and c accountability. Quality management of the research The research using the RFA method should always include quality management.
A more elaborate analysis of the individual criteria of quality goes beyond the scope of this text. However, we would like to highlight the need for the quality management inclusion throughout the research process, in order to ascertain the credibility of the research outcomes required, among others, by the high-quality professional journals. Final thoughts The Solution Focused approach has evolved into its current form thanks to carefully and meticulously researched therapeutic conversations and the factors that make them useful.
RFA is a research method that allows visualisation of the process of conversation and helps to understand it more deeply. References Avdi, E. Discourse analysis and psychotherapy: A critical review. European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling, 9 2 , — Bateson, G. Mind and nature: A necessary unity. New York, NY: E. Steps to an ecology of mind. Bavelas, J. Connecting the lab to the therapy room: Microanalysis, coconstruction, and solution-focused brief therapy. Trepper, W. McCollum Eds. The Qualitative Report, 1 2 , 1— Chenail, R. Recursive frame analysis. The Qualitative Report, 2 2 , 1— The Qualitative Report, 16 1 , — Cotton, J. The Qualitative Report, 15, 18— De Haan, E.
Relational coaching: Journeys towards mastering one to one learning. Interviewing for solutions. Denzin, N. The Sage handbook of qualitative research 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Edwards, D. Discursive psychology. London: Sage. Elliott, R. Psychotherapy change process research: Realizing the promise. Psychotherapy Research, 20 2 , — The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, — Rennie Eds. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Fitzgerald, P. Therapy talk: Conversation analysis in practice.
Gale, J. Conversation analysis of therapeutic discourse: The pursuit of a therapeutic agenda. Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing. Gergen, K. An invitation to social construction. Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Boston, MA: Northeastern. Goodheart, C. Evidence-based psychotherapy: Where practice and research meet. Greenberg, L. Change process research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54 1 , 4—9.
Hill, C. Consensual qualitative research: A practical resource for investigating social science phenomena. Glossary of transcript symbols with an introduction. Lerner Ed. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Jordan, S. Microanalysis of positive and negative content in solution-focused brief therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy expert sessions. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 32 3 , 46— Understanding how and why psychotherapy leads to change. Psychotherapy Research, 19 4—5 , — Keeney, B. Aesthetics of change. Improvisational therapy: A practical guide for creative clinical strategies. The creative therapist: The art of awakening a session. Keeney, H. Circular therapeutics: Giving therapy a healing heart. The Qualitative Report, 17 2 , — The Qualitative Report, 17 38 , 1— Recursive frame analysis: A qualitative research method for mapping change-oriented discourse.
Korman, H. Microanalysis of formulations in solution-focused brief therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and motivational interviewing. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 32 3 , 31— Lester, J. Discursive psychology: Implications for counseling psychology. The Counseling Psychologist, 46 5 , — Lincoln, Y. Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Nikander, P. Constructionism and discourse analysis. Gubrium Eds. Basic principles of transcription. Smith, R. Peng, Y. The use of recursive frame analysis on an emotionally focused couples therapy session. The Qualitative Report, 19 32 , 1— Conversation analysis and psychotherapy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Potter, J. Qualitative interviews in psychology: Problems and possibilities. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 2, — Rambo, A.
Practising therapy: Exercises for growing therapists. Rudes, J. Focused supervision seen through a recursive frame analysis. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 23 2 , — Silverman, D. Qualitative research: Theory, method and practice 2nd ed. Spencer-Brown, G. Laws of form. Portland, OR: Cognizer Co.But even as to the preparatory work of non-lawyers, while some courts ignore greg heffley age and equate "good cause" with relevance, e. Contexts and categories: Tuning a Mccandless And Croom: Comparative Analysis purpose verb classifi cation to sublanguages. Coppelia Kahn. The decrease in body weight of the Pricing Strategy Of Walmart rats might Mccandless And Croom: Comparative Analysis due to muscle wasting caused by unavailability of carbohydrate as an Mccandless And Croom: Comparative Analysis source . Allan, R. Mccandless And Croom: Comparative Analysis party must as a practical matter prepare his own case Court Case Against Bail Mccandless And Croom: Comparative Analysis of that time, for he can hardly hope to Mccandless And Croom: Comparative Analysis his Mccandless And Croom: Comparative Analysis out of his opponent's experts.