✪✪✪ Hypocrisy: The Divine Command Theory
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Ethics: Divine Command Theory
He who is in love is wise and is becoming wiser, sees newly every time he looks at the object beloved, drawing from it with his eyes and his mind those virtues which it possesses. I must be myself. I cannot break myself any longer for you, or you. If you can love me for what I am, we shall be the happier. If you cannot, I will still seek to deserve that you should. If you are true, but not in the same truth with me, cleave to your companions; I will seek my own. I do this not selfishly, but humbly and truly. There can be no excess to love; none to knowledge; none to beauty, when these attributes are considered in the purest sense.
The love that you withhold is the pain that you carry. This is my wish for you: Comfort on difficult days, smiles when sadness intrudes, rainbows to follow the clouds, laughter to kiss your lips, sunsets to warm your heart, hugs when spirits sag, beauty for your eyes to see, friendships to brighten your being, faith so that you can believe, confidence for when you doubt, courage to know yourself, patience to accept the truth, love to complete your life. Nature always wears the colors of the spirit. The charming landscape which I saw this morning is indubitably made up of some 20 or 30 farms. Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the woodland beyond. But none of them owns the landscape. There is a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the parts, that is, the poet.
The happiest man is he who learns from nature the lesson of worship. Nature, Essay , Amazon Book. If a man has good corn or wood, or boards, or pigs to sell, or can make better chairs or knives, crucibles or church organs, than anybody else, you will find a broad hard-beaten road to his house, though it be in the woods. If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore, and preserve for many generations the remembrance of the city of God which had been shown. Nature never wears a mean appearance.
Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and lose his curiosity by finding out all her perfection. Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit. The flowers, the animals, the mountains, reflected the wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood. To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The lover of nature is he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of manhood.
His intercourse with heaven and earth, becomes part of his daily food. These roses under my window make no reference to former roses or to better ones; they are for what they are; they exist with God to-day. There is no time to them. There is simply the rose; it is perfect in every moment of its existence. Every sunset brings the promise of a new dawn. Let us draw a lesson from nature, which always works by short ways. When the fruit is ripe, it falls. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and vulgar things. It is one light which beams out of a thousand stars. It is one soul which animates all men. The power of Nature predominates over the human will in all works of even the fine arts, in all that respects their material and external circumstances.
Nature paints the best part of the picture, carves the best part of the statue, builds the best part of the house, and speaks the best part of the oration. Let him go where he will, he can only find so much beauty or worth as he carries. We are immersed in beauty, but our eyes have no clear vision. The Essays of Ralph Waldo Emerson. To the attentive eye, each moment of the year has its own beauty, and in the same fields, it beholds, every hour, a picture which was never seen before, and which shall never be seen again.
There are many beauties; as, of general nature, of the human face and form, of manners, of brain, or method, moral beauty, or beauty of the soul. The moral sense reappears today with the same morning newness that has been from of old the fountain of beauty and strength. We find delight in the beauty and happiness of children that makes the heart too big for the body. On stars: Every night come out these envoys of beauty, and light the universe with their admonishing smile.
The poet, the painter, the sculptor, the musician, the architect, seek each to concentrate this radiance of the world on one point, and each in his several work to satisfy the love of beauty which stimulates him to produce. We ascribe beauty to that which is simple; which has no superfluous parts; which exactly answers its end. Truth, and goodness, and beauty are but different faces of the same all. Self-trust is the first secret of success. None of us will ever accomplish anything excellent or commanding except when he listens to this whisper which is heard by him alone.
Nothing can bring you peace but yourself. Nothing can bring you peace but the triumph of principles. If the single man plant himself indomitably on his instincts, and there abide, the huge world will come round to him. We wish to be self-sustained. We do not quite forgive a giver. The hand that feeds us is in some danger of being bitten. Your genuine action will explain itself, and will explain your other genuine actions.
Your conformity explains nothing. Not that what I said was not true; not that it has not found intelligent receivers but because it did not go from any wish in me to bring men to me, but to themselves. Do not yet see, that, if the single man plant himself indomitably on his instincts, and there abide, the huge world will come round to him. All our progress is an unfolding, like the vegetable bud.
You have first an instinct, then an opinion, then a knowledge, as the plant has root, bud, and fruit. Trust the instinct to the end, though you can render no reason. It is vain to hurry it. By trusting it to the end it shall ripen into truth, and you shall know why you believe. To believe your own thought, to believe that what is true for you in your private heart is true for all men — that is genius. A man should learn to detect and watch that gleam of light which flashes across his mind from within, more than the lustre of the firmament of bards and sages. Yet he dismisses without notice his thought, because it is his. It is easy to live for others, everybody does. I call on you to live for yourself. Accept the place the divine providence has found for you, the society of your contemporaries, the connection of events.
Great men have always done so. I will so trust that what is deep is holy, that I will do strongly before the sun and moon whatever only rejoices me, and the heart appoints. Self-trust is the essence of heroism. Fear defeats more people than any other one thing in the world. When a resolute young fellow steps up to the great bully, the world, and takes him boldly by the beard, he is often surprised to find it comes off in his hand, and that it was only tied on to scare away the timid adventurers. What a man does, that he has. What has he to do with hope or fear? In himself is his might. Let him regard no good as solid but that which is in his nature, and which must grow out of him as long as he exists. The goods of fortune may come and go like summer leaves; let him scatter them on every wind as the momentary signs of his infinite productiveness.
Whatever you do, you need courage. Whatever course you decide upon, there is always someone to tell you that you are wrong. There are always difficulties arising that tempt you to believe your critics are right. To map out a course of action and follow it to an end requires some of the same courage that a soldier needs. Peace has its victories, but it takes brave men and women to win them. The wise man throws himself on the side of his assailants. It is more his interest than it is theirs to find his weak point. Great men, great nations, have not been boasters and buffoons, but perceivers of the terror of life, and have manned themselves to face it.
Action is with the scholar subordinate, but it is essential. Without it, he is not yet man. Without it, thought can never ripen into truth. What we fear doing most is usually what we most need to do. Free should the scholar be, — free and brave… Brave; for fear is a thing, which a scholar by his very function puts behind him. Fear always springs from ignorance… The world is his, who can see through its pretension. Courage charms us, because it indicates that a man loves an idea better than all things in the world, that he is thinking neither of his bed, nor his dinner, nor his money, but will venture all to put in act the invisible thought of his mind. That which we persist in doing becomes easier to do, not that the nature of the thing has changed but that our power to do has increased.
At times the whole world seems to be in conspiracy to importune you with emphatic trifles. The secret of education lies in respecting the pupil. The boy wishes to learn to skate, to coast, to catch a fish in the brook, to hit a mark with a snowball or a stone; and a boy a little older is just as well pleased to teach him these sciences. The search after the great men is the dream of youth, and the most serious occupation of manhood.
Books are the best of things , well used; abused, the worst. What is the right use? What is the end which all means go to effect? They are for nothing but to inspire. Colleges… can only highly serve us, when they aim not to drill, but to create; when they gather from far every ray of various genius to their hospitable halls, and, by the concentrated fires, set the hearts of their youth on flame. Books are the best type of the influence of the past… The theory of books is noble. We are students of words: we are shut up in schools, and colleges, and recitation -rooms, for ten or fifteen years, and come out at last with a bag of wind, a memory of words, and do not know a thing.
We are too civil to books. For a few golden sentences we will turn over and actually read a volume of four or five hundred pages. The mind, once stretched by a new idea, never returns to its original dimensions. Respect the child. Wait and see the new product of Nature. Nature loves analogies, but not repetitions. Be not too much his parent. Trespass not on his solitude. Poetry teaches the enormous force of a few words, and, in proportion to the inspiration, checks loquacity. See in college how we thwart the natural love of learning by leaving the natural method of teaching what each wishes to learn, and insisting that you shall learn what you have no taste or capacity for.
The college, which should be a place of delightful labour, is made odious and unhealthy, and the young men are tempted to frivolous amusements to rally their jaded spirits. Scholarship is to be created not by compulsion, but by awakening a pure interest in knowledge. The wise instructor accomplishes this by opening to his pupils precisely the attractions the study has for himself. The marking is a system for schools, not for the college; for boys, not for men; and it is an ungracious work to put on a professor. The measure of a master is his success in bringing all men round to his opinion twenty years later. Shall I tell you the secret of the true scholar? It is this: Every man I meet is my master in some point, and in that I learn of him.
In the highest civilization, the book is still the highest delight. He who has once known its satisfactions is provided with a resource against calamity. Genius borrows nobly. Life consists of what man is thinking about all day. When we have new perception, we shall gladly disburden the memory of its hoarded treasures as old rubbish. A person will worship something, have no doubt about that. We may think our tribute is paid in secret in the dark recesses of our hearts, but it will come out. That which dominates our imaginations and our thoughts will determine our lives, and our character. Therefore, it behooves us to be careful what we worship, for what we are worshipping, we are becoming. Nothing is at last sacred but the integrity of your own mind.
Do not say things. What you are stands over you the while, and thunders, so that I cannot hear what you say to the contrary. Every man alone is sincere. At the entrance of a second person, hypocrisy begins. We parry and fend the approach of our fellow-man by compliments, by gossip, by amusements, by affairs. We cover up our thought from him under a hundred folds. By necessity, by proclivity, and by delight, we all quote. In fact, it is as difficult to appropriate the thoughts of others as it is to invent. What I must do is all that concerns me, not what the people think. This rule, equally arduous in actual and intellectual life, may serve for the whole distinction between greatness and meanness.
What am I? And what is? Asks the human spirit with a curiosity new-kindled, but never to be quenched. A painter told me that nobody could draw a tree without in some sort becoming a tree; or draw a child by studying the outlines of its form merely… but by watching for a time his motions and plays, the painter enters into his nature and can then draw him at every attitude. The purpose of life seems to be to acquaint a man with himself and whatever science or art or course of action he engages in reacts upon and illuminates the recesses of his own mind.
The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to their influence. We will walk on our own feet; we will work with our own hands; we will speak our own minds… A nation of men will for the first time exist, because each believes himself inspired by the Divine Soul which also inspires all men. Thought is all light, and publishes itself to the universe.
It will speak, though you were dumb, by its own miraculous organ. It will flow out of your actions, your manners, and your face. It will bring you friendships. It will impledge you to truth by the love and expectation of generous minds. Things are pretty, graceful, rich, elegant, handsome, but, until they speak to the imagination, not yet beautiful. All my best thoughts were stolen by the ancients. Your goodness must have some edge to it — else it is none. Power ceases in the instant of repose; it resides in the moment of transition from a past to a new state, in the shooting of the gulf, in the darting to an aim. Success treads on every right step.
For the instinct is sure, that prompts him to tell his brother what he thinks. He then learns, that in going down into the secrets of his own mind, he has descended into the secrets of all minds. Character is higher than intellect. The great man is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude. Whoso would be a man, must be a nonconformist. He who would gather immortal palms must not be hindered by the name of goodness, but must explore if it be goodness. Absolve you to yourself, and you shall have the suffrage of the world.
The imitator dooms himself to hopeless mediocrity. The inventor did it because it was natural to him, and so in him it has a charm. The good news is that the moment you decide that what you know is more important than what you have been taught to believe, you will have shifted gears in your quest for abundance. Success comes from within, not from without. See also: 10 Habits of Successful People , yurielkaim. I hate to be defended in a newspaper. As long as all that is said is said against me, I feel a certain assurance of success. But as soon as honeyed words of praise are spoken for me, I feel as one that lies unprotected before his enemies. When you were born you were crying and everyone else was smiling. The good lawyer is not the man who has an eye to every side and angle of contingency, and qualifies all his qualifications, but who throws himself on your part so heartily, that he can get you out of a scrape.
We must be as courteous to a man as we are to a picture, which we are willing to give the advantage of a good light. A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines. With consistency a great soul has simply nothing to do. He may as well concern himself with his shadow on the wall. Whatever games are played with us, we must play no games with ourselves, but deal in our privacy with the last honesty and truth. The mark of the man of the world is absence of pretension. He does not make a speech; he takes a low business-tone, avoids all brag, is nobody, dresses plainly, promises not at all, performs much, speaks in monosyllables, hugs his fact.
Happy is the house that shelters a friend. Friendship should be surrounded with ceremonies and respects, and not crushed into corners. Friendship requires more time than poor busy men can usually command. The glory of friendship is not the outstretched hand, nor the kindly smile, nor the joy of companionship; it is the spiritual inspiration that comes to one when you discover that someone else believes in you and is willing to trust you with a friendship. A friend is a person with whom I may be sincere.
Before him I may think aloud. I am arrived at last in the presence of a man so real and equal that I may drop even those undermost garments of dissimulation, courtesy, and second thought, which men never put off, and may deal with him with the simplicity and wholeness, with which one chemical atom meets another. The other element of friendship is tenderness. We are holden to men by every sort of tie, by blood, by pride, by fear, by hope, by lucre, by lust, by hate, by admiration, by every circumstance and badge and trifle, but we can scarce believe that so much character can subsist in another as to draw us by love.
Can another be so blessed, and we so pure, that we can offer him tenderness? When a man becomes dear to me, I have touched the goal of fortune. Two may talk and one may hear, but three cannot take part in a conversation of the most sincere and searching sort. He who has a thousand friends has not a friend to spare, and he who has one enemy will meet him everywhere. Friends seem to be only mirrors to draw out and explain to us ourselves; and that which draws us nearer our fellow man, is, that the deep Heart in one, answers the deep Heart in another, — that we find we have a common Nature — one life which runs through all individuals, and which is indeed Divine.
See also: Emerson on the Two Pillars of Friendship brainpickings. Our intellectual and active powers increase with our affection. The scholar sits down to write, and all his years of meditation do not furnish him with one good thought or happy expression; but it is necessary to write a letter to a friend, and, forthwith, troops of gentle thoughts invest themselves, on every hand, with chosen words. I feel as warmly when he is praised, as the lover when he hears applause of his engaged maiden. I do not wish to treat friendships daintily, but with roughest courage. When they are real, they are not glass threads or frost-work, but the solidest thing we know.
It is one of the blessings of old friends that you can afford to be stupid with them. It is fit for serene days, and graceful gifts, and country rambles, but also for rough roads and hard fare, shipwreck, poverty, and persecution. It should never fall into something usual and settled, but should be alert and inventive, and add rhyme and reason to what was drudgery. Friendship demands a religious treatment. We talk of choosing our friends, but friends are self-elected. Reverence is a great part of it. Men are better than their theology. Make your own Bible. Select and collect all the words and sentences that in all your readings have been to you like the blast of a trumpet. The progress of religion is steadily to its identity with morals. Strength enters just as much as the moral element prevails.
The god of the cannibals will be a cannibal, of the crusaders a crusader, and of the merchants a merchant. In the matter of religion, people eagerly fasten their eyes on the difference between their own creed and yours; whilst the charm of the study is in finding the agreements and identities in all the religions of humanity. In how many churches, by how many prophets, tell me, is man made sensible that he is an infinite Soul; that the earth and heavens are passing into his mind; that he is drinking forever the soul of God? Religion is to do right.
It is to love, it is to serve, it is to think, it is to be humble. When a man lives with God, his voice shall be as sweet as the murmur of the brook and the rustle of the corn. The less government we have, the better — the fewer laws, and the less confided power. The two parties which divide the state, the party of Conservatism and that of Innovation, are very old, and have disputed the possession of the world ever since it was made. These rabble at Washington … see, against the unanimous expression of the people, how much a little well-directed effrontery can achieve, how much crime the people will bear, and they proceed from step to step….
Conservatism makes no poetry, breathes no prayer, has no invention; it is all memory. Reform has no gratitude, no prudence, no husbandry. When a whole nation is roaring Patriotism at the top of its voice, I am fain to explore the cleanness of its hands and the purity of its heart. The true test of civilization is, not the census, nor the size of the cities, nor the crops — no, but the kind of man the country turns out.
There is always a certain meanness in the argument of conservatism, joined with a certain superiority in its fact. These are the voices which we hear in solitude, but they grow faint and inaudible as we enter into the world. Society is a wave. From Gentiles or Jews who embraced the Hellenistic culture? From certain political groups? Josephus's references to the Pharisees are selective, probably because he was adapting them to a cultured Gentile audience.
His information comes in two forms: direct descriptions and the role the Pharisees play in the history that he depicts. Josephus says the Pharisees maintained a simple lifestyle Ant Josephus mentions their belief in both fate divine sovereignty and the human will War 2. Some Pharisees refused to take oaths Ant Of particular importance are Josephus's statements that the Pharisees adhered to "the laws of which the Deity approves" Ant Pharisees "follow the guidance of that which their doctrine has selected and transmitted as good, attaching the chief importance to the observance of those commandments which it has seen fit to dictate to them" Ant Although the phrase "Oral Law" is not used, it appears Josephus understood that the Pharisees affirmed a body of traditional interpretations, applications, and expansions of the Old Testament law communicated orally.
The Pharisees first appear in Josephus's account of intertestamental history as he describes the reign of John Hyrcanus He assumes they had been in existence for some time. This raises the much discussed question of their origin. Recent studies suggest the Pharisees were part of a general revolutionary spirit of the pre-Maccabean times and that they emerged as a scholarly class dedicated to the teaching of both the written and oral Law and stressing the internal side of Judaism. In any case, they were certainly one of the groups that sought to adapt Judaism for the postexilic situation.
John Hyrcanus was at first "a disciple" of the Pharisees but became their enemy Ant The Pharisees were opponents of the Hasmonean rulers from then on. The hostility was especially great during the reign of Alexander Jannaeus , and they seem to have taken a leading part in opposition to him; it is usually assumed that Pharisees composed either all or a large part of the eight hundred Jews he later crucified Ant The one exception to Pharisaic opposition to the Hasmoneans was Salome Alexandria , under whom they virtually dominated the government.
Josephus's information about the Pharisees under the Romans is spotty. Under Herod 37 b. Some individual Pharisees did oppose Herod on occasion. Josephus gives almost no information about the Pharisees from the death of Herod until the outset of the revolt against Rome about a. At first they attempted to persuade the Jews against militant actions War 2. Later Pharisees appear as part of the leadership of the people during the revolt, some individuals playing a leading role in it.
On the other hand, they warn Jesus that his life is in danger from Herod Luke , invite him for meals Luke ; , are attracted to or believe in Jesus John ; ; , and protect early Christians Acts ; Paul asserts he was a Pharisee before his conversion Php The clearest New Testament statement of Pharisaic distinctives is Acts "The Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, and that there are neither angels, nor spirits, but the Pharisees acknowledge them all. However, Mark says that "The Pharisees do not eat unless they give their hands a ceremonial washing holding to the tradition of the elders. When they come from the marketplace they do not eat unless they wash.
And they observe many other traditions, such as the washing of cups, pitchers and kettles. Matthew 23 calls attention to their 1 positions of religious authority in the community, 2 concern for outward recognition and honor, 3 enthusiasm for making converts, and 4 emphasis on observing the legalistic minutia of the law. In verse 23 Jesus condemns them, not for what they did, but for neglecting "the more important matters of the law justice, mercy and faithfulness.
Instead, it seems to denote something like a "religious party, " "community, " or "denomination" within mainstream Judaism. Pharisaic zeal for the Law is obvious, but what is meant by Law? The sanctity of the written Law was never questioned, but intertestamental Jewish groups differed on how it was to be interpreted and applied. The Pharisees developed their own body of interpretations, expansions, and applications of the Law that they came to regard as of divine origin Mishnah, Aboth,It is in Hypocrisy: The Divine Command Theory both Hypocrisy: The Divine Command Theory reason and to Divine Revelation. Ranged with Essay On Nootropics Action are the Hypocrisy: The Divine Command Theory which We have been happy to call its auxiliary forces. Romans, XIII, 8, Analysis Of Invisible Man By Ralph Ellison Jeremiah ii. We rush upon them with our swords, and invoke the Hypocrisy: The Divine Command Theory and Jove himself to share the booty.